I assume you are referring to the idea of nuclear pulse propulsion, as incorporated into the designs of Project Orion.
The answer is no, but yes.
An unmodified nuclear device would produce essentially no blast in space. That’s because nuclear detonations release almost all their energy as light, mostly in the form of x-rays or gamma-rays. When detonated on Earth, this energy is absorbed by the surrounding air, which heats up to incandescence and expands, producing the blast wave that does most of the damage.
In space there is no air, so the detonation would produce mostly a flash of light and burst of particle radiation, and the energy would be wasted.
That’s why scientists at General Atomics working on Project Orion planned to pack tiny atomic bombs in a casing with a tungsten plug. A shaped radiation reflector would channel most of the radiation into the plug, which would do in space exactly what the air does on Earth, and produce a propulsive blast. Since tungsten is thousands of times denser than air, a relatively compact plug would be sufficient to “kick” against the pusher plate, and these pushes would be evened out by shock absorbers into constant thrust.