我们如何在去往火星的辐射带中生存下来?How will we survive the radiation belt to get to Mars?

https://www.quora.com/How-will-we-survive-the-radiation-belt-to-get-to-Mars

Easy.

Go fast and plan carefully. If you are going to Mars, the Van Allen radiation belts are somewhere below doing your taxes on your list of worries.

快速行动并仔细计划。如果您要去火星,担心Van Allen辐射带就和担心你在哪儿要被收税一样,无需大惊小怪。

Space-X isn’t that far along, but NASA’s Orion capsule has already been built with the added shielding needed to carry it and a human crew repeatedly through the Van Allen belts.

Space-X的发展还没有到那种底部,但是NASA的Orion太空舱已经制造出来,并带有额外的防护罩,可以携带它和乘务人员反复穿过Van Allen带。

The Apollo spacecraft (and crew) only had to pass through the belts twice, once on the way out and once on the way back. It’s 1960’s era electronics was sufficiently robust that radiation wasn’t a concern.

阿波罗号飞船(和乘员组)只需要两次穿过辐射带带,一次是在进去,一次是在回来。在1960年代,电子设备已经足够坚固,因此辐射就不再是问题了。

Not so on Orion, which has a modern computer with high density integrated circuits built with numerous radiation handling features. That’s why the Orion (like the Falcon heavy) had to test its mettle against the Van Allen belts—to ensure it’s longevity and reliability.

但Orion早已不像阿波罗时代的那样了,Orion拥有一台现代计算机,该计算机具有高密度集成电路,并具有众多辐射处理功能。这就是为什么猎户座飞船(像猎鹰重型)必须在Van Allen带上测试其耐力的原因-以确保其使用寿命和可靠性。

Dosimeters carried by Apollo crews confirmed that skirting the Van Allen belts at high speed produced about the equivalent exposure of a chest x-ray. This was nothing compared to the exposure absorbed during a long mission, the highest of which approached 1 REM on Apollo 14. That rate of exposure is of no concern on so short a flight, but would be unacceptable on a Mars mission that might last months or years.

阿波罗工作人员携带的剂量计证实,以高速度绕Van Allen带可以产生与胸部X射线等效的照射。与长时间暴露所吸收的相比,这没什么。在阿波罗14号上,最高暴露量接近1 REM。在如此短的飞行时间内,暴露率无关紧要,但在可能持续数月甚至几年的的火星任务中,人们就受不了了。

Mars travelers can forget the Van Allen belts. They’ll need adequate shielding to protect them during the cruise and on the surface of Mars. They’ll also need a “storm cellar” with even heavier shielding—enough to safely ride out a coronal mass ejection.

火星旅行者可以不去管 Van Allen 带。他们将需要足够多的防护措施,以在航行及在火星表面期间对其进行保护。他们还需要一个带有更大防护罩的“风暴地窖”,足以安全地抵抗日冕物质弹射。

Most likely, water, rocket propellant, and other supplies will make up some of the mass. Mass shielding and Whipple shielding will make up the rest.

水,火箭推进剂和其他补给品很可能会构成质量的一部分。质量屏蔽和Whipple防护罩将构成其余部分。

【译注:Fred Whipple发明的Whipple防护罩是一种超高速冲击防护罩,用于保护乘员和无人驾驶的航天器免受微流星体和轨道碎片的撞击,后者的速度通常在每秒3至18公里(1.9和11.2英里/秒)。 至于Mass shielding是个啥,博主并未查到 】

[Whipple shield of the type carried by the Stardust space probe]

【 Stardust 太空探测器携带的那种Whipple防护罩】

【博主吐槽:看起来很像多层蛋糕….】

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