如果空间站起火了,我们要怎么用灭火器灭火?How do we use fire extinguishers to control fire in the space station?

【翻译自quora】

Fire Safety utilizes a concept called the “Fire Triangle” – three things are needed for a fire: heat, oxygen, and fuel. Preventing, detecting, and suppressing fires is done by attending to sides of that triangle. First, we do our best to design the spacecraft to not have a lot of fuel. That means avoiding the use of materials that easily burn. Then we include ways to remove heat and oxygen.

消防安全提出了称为“消防三角”的概念–发生火灾需要三件事:热量,氧气和燃料。 预防,检测和抑制火灾是通过密切关注这个消防三角形来完成的。 首先,我们尽最大努力设计航天飞机,使其不消耗大量燃料。 这意味着避免使用容易燃烧的材料。 然后,我们会介绍了去除热量和氧气的方法。

Each module, and some of the racks, has one or more smoke detectors. In microgravity, there is no natural air convection. In order to detect smoke, the smoke detectors are mounted inside ventilation pathways. Air is forced through these ventilation pathways by fans. If a fire is ignited, that fire will produce particulates (smoke) that will be carried by the ventilation to the nearest smoke detector.

每个模块和某些构架都有一个或多个烟雾探测器。 在微重力中,没有自然空气对流。 为了检测烟雾,烟雾探测器安装在通风通道内。 风扇迫使空气通过这些通风路径。 如果着火,则该火将产生微粒(烟),这些微粒将通过通风装置碰到最近的烟雾探测器。

Should a smoke detector detect such particulates, it will annunciate a fire. The central computer will detect that annunciation and trigger alarms and also initiate automatic responses such as removing power from the rack (taking away a source of heat) and cutting off ventilation in that area to prevent the flow of oxygen to the fire. For most small fires, this should immediately extinguish the fire.

如果烟雾探测器检测到此类微粒,则将发出火警。 中央计算机将检测到该警报并触发警报,并启动自动响应,例如从架构上断开电源(带走热源)并切断该区域的通风以防止氧气流向火源。 对于大多数小型的火情,这个系统可以立即扑灭。

The crew, upon hearing the fire alarm, will go to the source of the fire and insert a fire extinguisher nozzle into the closest fireport and fill the volume with fire suppressant chemicals. This should quickly extinguish any fires not extinguished by the automatic isolation response.

机组人员在听到火灾警报后将前往火源,将灭火器喷嘴插入最近的消防口,并在其中填充灭火剂。 他们应该迅速扑灭之前提到的系统没有自动扑灭的任何火灾。

Should a fire be too large for these methods to extinguish, the crew can seal off the entire module and air can be removed to starve the fire.

如果火势太大,无法通过这些方法扑灭,机组人员可以将整个模块密封起来,并可以去除其中的空气,让火自己因为助燃剂不足而自己熄灭。

To avoid excessive exposure to toxic byproducts of a fire, the crew can don masks that can either filter air or provide a dedicated source of oxygen.

为了避免过度接触到火灾产生的有毒副产品,工作人员可以戴上可过滤空气或提供专用氧气源的口罩。

If procedures are followed, the crew should not be exposed to excessive risk when dealing with a fire. However, fire in space is certainly something that has to be respected and can be deadly. In February,

如果遵循相关程序,在发生火灾时,机组人员不会需要冒太多的风险。 但是,太空火灾肯定是必须要重视的,它可能是致命的。

1997, a fire broke out on the Space Station Mir. That fire was particularly dangerous because it involved a lithium perchlorate canister. The job of that canister was to produce oxygen, making it very difficult to extinguish. Once it began to burn, the oxygen in the canister allowed the canister to get so hot that it began melting metal. The crew were unable to extinguish that fire, so they had to use the fire extinguishers to prevent the fire from spreading to nearby materials and structure until the canister eventually consumed all of its oxygen and the fire could be suppressed.

1997年2月,和平号空间站(Mir)发生火灾。 火灾特别危险,因为它涉及高氯酸锂罐。 那个罐子的作用是产生氧气,很难扑灭。 一旦开始燃烧,碳罐中的氧气使碳罐变得非常热,以至于金属开始熔化。 船员无法直接灭火,因此他们只能用灭火器来防止火势蔓延到附近的材料和结构,直到罐子最终消耗掉所有的氧气,如此才扑灭掉大火。

There were a lot of lessons learned because of that incident and those lessons learned greatly reduce the chance of something similar happening on ISS.

经过该事件后,我们得到了很多经验教训,这些经验教训极大地减少了国际空间站发生类似事件的可能。

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