除了阿波罗十三号外,NASA还在外太空遇到过什么险情?Other than Apollo 13, what was the closest NASA came to a disaster in outer space?

【翻译自quora】

【@Pual Fist回答说】

I’m going with Gemini 8, a flight that came within seconds of killing Neil Armstrong and David Scott.

我要讲讲双子座8号飞机,它差点就瞬间杀死了尼尔·阿姆斯特朗和大卫·斯科特。

Gemini 8 was docked with the Agena booster, which was a “docking target” for this mission. The plan was for Scott to perform an EVA after the docking as practice for later missions.

双子座8号与Agena助推器对接,后者是该任务的“对接目标”。 该计划是让Scott在对接后执行舱外活动,作为后续任务的练习。

Command Pilot Armstrong had docked the Gemini capsule to the Agena booster (which had been put in orbit weeks ahead of the mission) flawlessly.

指令官飞行员阿姆斯特朗(Armstrong)完美地让双子座太空船对接到了Agena助推器上。后者在几个星期前就被送到了预定轨道上。

(Agena booster – NASA image)

After docking, and before the start of the EVA, Armstrong noticed a sudden change in the attitude of the combined craft. He took control to stop the movement, but as soon as he ceased thrusting, the “roll” movement started up again.

停靠后,在舱外活动开始之前,阿姆斯特朗注意到组合飞船的姿态突然改变。 他(译注:应该是通过反向推进)控制住了这种运动,但是当他不再推进时,“侧倾”运动又重新开始了。

The combined Gemini capsule and Agena booster started rotating (end for end), and Armstrong trying to keep up and null the motion back to zero. His initial thought was the maneuvering system on the Agena booster had malfunctioned, so while he tried to control the tumble, Dave Scott hit the “undock” switch. The Gemini capsule spun free. Armstrong then noticed that the “on orbit maneuvering system”, OAMS, fuel was still dwindling rapidly on the Gemini capsule, making the emergency even more dire – that system was required to de-orbit and come back to earth!

双子座机舱和Agena助推器的组合装置开始旋转(首尾相连),而阿姆斯特朗则尝试保持该速度并想将其减小到0。 他最初认为是Agena助推器上的操纵系统发生故障,因此当他试图控制翻转时,Dave Scott按下了“不对接”开关。 双子座机舱自由旋转。 然后,阿姆斯特朗(Armstrong)注意到,“在轨机动系统”(OAMS)的燃料仍然在双子座太空舱上迅速减少,这使得情况变得更加严峻——该系统需要脱离轨道运行并重返地面!

At the maximum rotation, the Gemini Capsule was moving at 296 degrees a second! This was very nearly enough to render the astronauts unconscious.

在最大旋转速度下,双子座机舱每秒移动296度! 这几乎足以使宇航员失去知觉。

Armstrong shut down the OAMS system, finally understanding that it was a stuck thruster, and used the De-Orbit system to null their motion to zero (saving their lives). Power the OAMS system back up one thruster at a time, they managed to isolate which thruster was stuck “on” and shut it down… They barely had 25% of the OAMS fuel left.

阿姆斯特朗关闭了OAMS系统,最终注意到问题的根源是有一个推进器卡住了,并使用了De-Orbit系统将机舱不再运动(以挽救生命)。 启动OAMS系统一次来备份一台推进器,然后设法隔离那个“卡住”的推进器并关闭它……他们只剩下OAMS燃料的25%。

NASA had Gemini 8 reenter after one more orbit, three days before the recovery ship was supposed to be on-station to recover them.

NASA让双子座8号几次变轨来再入大气,救援船在原定计划的三天前就营救到了他们。

(Gemini 8 during recovery – NASA image)

Had Neil Armstrong lost consciousness from the rapid tumble, or been unable to figure out which thruster was stuck “on” in time to keep enough fuel to de-orbit, history would be considerably different.

如果尼尔·阿姆斯特朗(Neil Armstrong)因快速下落而失去知觉,或者无法弄清楚哪台推进器被“卡住”并及时关掉以保持足够的燃料离开轨道,历史将大不相同。

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