阿波罗飞船的指令与服务模块Apollo command and service module

翻译自wiki

简介

The Apollo command and service module (CSM) was one of two principal components of the United States Apollo spacecraft, used for the Apollo program, which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972. The CSM functioned as a mother ship, which carried a crew of three astronauts and the second Apollo spacecraft, the Apollo Lunar Module, to lunar orbit, and brought the astronauts back to Earth. It consisted of two parts: the conical command module, a cabin that housed the crew and carried equipment needed for atmospheric reentry and splashdown; and the cylindrical service module which provided propulsion, electrical power and storage for various consumables required during a mission. An umbilical connection transferred power and consumables between the two modules. Just before reentry of the command module on the return home, the umbilical connection was severed and the service module was cast off and allowed to burn up in the atmosphere.

阿波罗指令与服务模块(CSM)是美国阿波罗飞船的两个主要组件之一,用于阿波罗计划,该计划在1969年至1972年之间将宇航员降落在月球上。CSM的功能是作为母舰,由三名宇航员的一名控制,任务是携带阿波罗航天器“阿波罗登月舱”进入月球轨道,并在之后将宇航员带回地球。 它由两部分组成:圆锥形的指挥模块,一个可以容纳机组人员并携带大气再入和降落所需设备的机舱。 圆柱形服务模块为任务期间所需的各种消耗品提供推进,电力和存储。 一个脐带状的连接将在两个模块之间传输能源和消耗品。 在指令模块返回地球表面时,服务模块将被扔掉并在大气中焚毁。

The CSM was developed and built for NASA by North American Aviation starting in November 1961. It was initially designed to land on the Moon atop a landing rocket stage and return all three astronauts on a direct-ascent mission, which would not use a separate lunar module, and thus had no provisions for docking with another spacecraft. This, plus other required design changes, led to the decision to design two versions of the CSM: Block I was to be used for uncrewed missions and a single crewed Earth orbit flight (Apollo 1), while the more advanced Block II was designed for use with the lunar module. The Apollo 1 flight was cancelled after a cabin fire killed the crew and destroyed their command module during a launch rehearsal test. Corrections of the problems which caused the fire were applied to the Block II spacecraft, which was used for all crewed spaceflights.

CSM由1961年11月开始由北美航空为NASA开发和制造。它最初的设计是安放在专用的着陆火箭上,并且之后能让运载全部3名宇航员返回,而不使用单独的登月舱,因此没有与其他航天器对接的规则。之后加上其他必要的设计变更,决定设计两种版本的CSM:用于无人飞行任务的Block I,和用于单人的绕地球轨道飞行(阿波罗1号),更先进的Block II用于 与登月舱一起使用。 在阿波罗1号的一次演习中,一场火灾杀死宇航员并摧毁了指挥舱,阿波罗1号被取消。 之后的改进用于Block II航天器,该航天器用于所有载人航天飞行。

Nineteen CSMs were launched into space. Of these, nine flew humans to the Moon between 1968 and 1972, and another two performed crewed test flights in low Earth orbit, all as part of the Apollo program. Before these, another four CSMs had flown as uncrewed Apollo tests, of which two were suborbital flights and another two were orbital flights. Following the conclusion of the Apollo program and during 1973–1974, three CSMs ferried astronauts to the orbital Skylab space station. Finally in 1975, the last flown CSM docked with the Soviet craft Soyuz 19 as part of the international Apollo–Soyuz Test Project.

19个CSM被发射到了太空。 其中,有9个在1968年至1972年之间飞向月球,另外2个在低地球轨道上进行了测试飞行,这都是阿波罗计划的一部分。 在此之前,又有4架CSM是阿波罗由于测试的无人飞行,其中2架是亚轨道飞行,另外2架是轨道飞行。 随着阿波罗计划的完成,并在1973-1974年间,三个CSM将宇航员运送到了轨道上的Skylab空间站。 在1975年,作为国际阿波罗-联盟号测试项目的一部分,最后一个仍在使用的CSM与苏联的“联盟号” 19号对接。

发展历史Development history

When NASA awarded the initial Apollo contract to North American Aviation on November 28, 1961, it was still assumed the lunar landing would be achieved by direct ascent rather than by lunar orbit rendezvous.[1] Therefore, design proceeded without a means of docking the command module to a lunar excursion module (LEM). But the change to lunar orbit rendezvous, plus several technical obstacles encountered in some subsystems (such as environmental control), soon made it clear that substantial redesign would be required. In 1963, NASA decided the most efficient way to keep the program on track was to proceed with the development in two versions:[2]

1961年11月28日,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)向北美航空公司签订了最初的阿波罗合同时,仍然认为登月舱返回是直接返回,而不是通过月球交会点实现的。[1]因此,进行设计时没有开发将指令模块对接至月球行动模块(LEM)的方法。但是月球交会点的改变,再加上某些子系统遇到的一些技术障碍(例如环境控制),很快就表明需要进行大量的重新设计。 1963年,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)决定,使该计划保持正常运转的最有效方法,是着手进行两个版本的开发:[2]

Block I would continue the preliminary design, to be used for early low Earth orbit test flights only.
Block II would be the lunar-capable version, including a docking hatch and incorporating weight reduction and lessons learned in Block I. Detailed design of the docking capability depended on design of the LEM, which was contracted to Grumman Aircraft Engineering.
By January 1964, North American started presenting Block II design details to NASA.[3] Block I spacecraft were used for all uncrewed Saturn 1B and Saturn V test flights. Initially two crewed flights were planned, but this was reduced to one in late 1966. This mission, designated AS-204 but named Apollo 1 by its flight crew, was planned for launch on February 21, 1967. But during a dress rehearsal for the launch on January 27, all three astronauts (Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee) were killed in a cabin fire which revealed serious design, construction and maintenance shortcomings in Block I, many of which had been carried over into Block II command modules being built at the time.

Block I将继续最初的设计思路,仅用于早期的低地球轨道测试飞行。

Block II将具有登月能力,包括对接舱口,在Block I中汲取经验教训并减轻重量。对接能力的详细设计取决于LEM的设计,而LEM是与格鲁曼飞机工程公司签订的合同。

1964年1月,北美开始向NASA展示Block II的设计细节。[3]Block I航天器用于无人的土星1B和土星V试飞。最初计划进行两次载人飞行,但在1966年末减少为一次。该任务被指定为AS-204,但其飞行机组人员将其命名为Apollo 1,该飞行任务计划于1967年2月21日发射。 1月27日发射升空,所有三名宇航员(古斯·格里索姆,埃德·怀特和罗杰·查菲)在一场机舱大火中丧生,这揭示了Block I的严重设计问题,建造和维护上的缺陷,当时依据Block 1而建造的Block 2也有很多类似的缺陷。

After a thorough investigation by the Apollo 204 Review Board, it was decided to terminate the crewed Block I phase and redefine Block II to incorporate the review board’s recommendations. Block II incorporated a revised CM heat shield design, which was tested on the uncrewed Apollo 4 and Apollo 6 flights, so the first all-up Block II spacecraft flew on the first crewed mission, Apollo 7.

经过阿波罗204审查委员会的彻底调查,决定停止Block I的载人任务,并将重新设计Block II纳入委员会的建议。 Block II结合了改进的CM隔热板设计,该设计已在无人驾驶的Apollo 4和Apollo 6飞船上进行了测试,因此第一架装备齐全Block II航天器将首次执行载人飞行任务——Apollo 7。

The two blocks were essentially similar in overall dimensions, but several design improvements resulted in weight reduction in Block II. Also, the Block I service module propellant tanks were slightly larger than in Block II. The Apollo 1 spacecraft weighed approximately 45,000 pounds (20,000 kg), while the Block II Apollo 7 weighed 36,400 lb (16,500 kg). (These two Earth orbital craft were lighter than the craft which later went to the Moon, as they carried propellant in only one set of tanks, and did not carry the high-gain S-band antenna.) In the specifications given below, unless otherwise noted, all weights given are for the Block II spacecraft.

Block I 和Block II的整体尺寸基本相似,但是几处设计上的改进让Block II的重量减轻一些。 同样,第一代服务模块的燃油箱比第二代略大。 阿波罗1号航天器重约45,000磅(20,000千克),而Block II阿波罗7号重达36,400磅(16,500千克)。 (这两个地球轨道飞行器比后来登上月球的飞行器轻,因为它们仅在一组燃油箱中携带推进剂,并且没有携带高增益S波段天线。)在以下给出的规格中,除非另有说明,否则给出的参数均是基于Block II的。

The total cost of the CSM for development and the units produced was $36.9B in 2016 dollars, adjusted from a nominal total of $3.7B[4] using the NASA New Start Inflation Indices.[5]

CSM开发和生产的单位的总成本为$ 36.9B,这是按2016年美元计算的,已使用NASA发布的新起点通胀指数,从名义总价$ 3.7B [4]进行调整了。[5]

指令模块Command module (CM)

The command module was a truncated cone (frustum) 10 feet 7 inches (3.23 m) tall with a diameter of 12 feet 10 inches (3.91 m) across the base. The forward compartment contained two reaction control engines, the docking tunnel, and the components of the Earth Landing System. The inner pressure vessel housed the crew accommodation, equipment bays, controls and displays, and many spacecraft systems. The aft compartment contained 10 reaction control engines and their related propellant tanks, fresh water tanks, and the CSM umbilical cables.

指令模块是一个10英尺7英寸(3.23 m)的截头圆锥体(圆锥台),底部直径为12英尺10英寸(3.91 m)。 前舱包含两个反作用控制引擎,对接通道和地球着陆系统的组件。 内部有压力的容器容纳了乘员舱,设备舱,控制和显示装置以及许多航天器系统。 船尾舱内装有10个反作用控制发动机及其相关的推进剂舱,淡水舱和CSM 集束电缆。

构造Construction

The command module consisted of two basic structures joined together: the inner structure (pressure shell) and the outer structure.

指令模块由两个基本结构组成:内部结构(压力壳)和外部结构。

The inner structure was an aluminum sandwich construction which consisted of a welded aluminum inner skin, adhesively bonded aluminum honeycomb core, and outer face sheet. The thickness of the honeycomb varied from about 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) at the base to about 0.25 inches (0.64 cm) at the forward access tunnel. This inner structure was the pressurized crew compartment.

内部结构是铝夹心结构,由焊接的铝内蒙皮,粘合铝蜂窝芯和外面板组成。 蜂窝的厚度从底部的大约1.5英寸(3.8厘米)到向前进入的隧道的大约0.25英寸(0.64厘米)不等。 内部结构是加压的乘员舱。

The outer structure was made of stainless steel brazed honeycomb brazed between steel alloy face sheets. It varied in thickness from 0.5 inch to 2.5 inches. Part of the area between the inner and outer shells was filled with a layer of fiberglass insulation as additional heat protection.[6]

外部结构由钎焊在钢合金面板之间的不锈钢钎焊蜂窝制成。 它的厚度从0.5英寸到2.5英寸不等。 内壳和外壳之间的部分区域填充了一层玻璃纤维隔热材料,以提供额外的热保护。[6]

温度保护(隔热盾)Thermal protection (heat shield)

Command module reentering the atmosphere at a non-zero angle of attack in order to establish a lifting entry and control the landing site (artistic rendition)

指令模块以非零的攻角再入大气,以建立起降通道【??】并控制着陆点(上图为艺术想象图)

An ablative heat shield on the outside of the CM protected the capsule from the heat of reentry, which is sufficient to melt most metals. This heat shield was composed of phenolic formaldehyde resin. During reentry, this material charred and melted away, absorbing and carrying away the intense heat in the process. The heat shield has several outer coverings: a pore seal, a moisture barrier (a white reflective coating), and a silver Mylar thermal coating that looks like aluminum foil.

CM外部的烧蚀隔热罩保护胶囊不受再入大气与空气摩擦产生的热的影响,该热量足以熔化大多数金属。 该隔热罩由酚醛树脂组成。 再入大气过程中,该物质烧焦并融化,吸收并带走了过程中的强烈热量。 隔热罩具有多个外部覆盖物:气孔密封,防潮层(白色反射涂层)和看起来像铝箔的Mylar银热涂层。

The heat shield varied in thickness from 2 inches (5.1 cm) in the aft portion (the base of the capsule, which faced forward during reentry) to 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) in the crew compartment and forward portions. Total weight of the shield was about 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg).[6]

隔热罩的厚度从尾部(指令舱的底部,在再入大气时对着下降速度的前面)的2英寸(5.1厘米)到乘员舱和前部的0.5英寸(1.3厘米)之间变化。 防护罩的总重量约为3,000磅(1,400千克)。[6]

指令舱前舱Forward compartment

The forward compartment was the area outside the inner pressure shell in the nose of the capsule, located around the forward docking tunnel and covered by the forward heat shield. The compartment was divided into four 90-degree segments that contained Earth landing equipment (all the parachutes, recovery antennas and beacon light, and sea recovery sling), two reaction control engines, and the forward heat shield release mechanism.

前部隔室是机头内部压力舱的外面的区域,位于前部对接通道周围并被前部隔热罩覆盖。 机舱分为四个90度的区域,其中包含着陆设备(所有降落伞,回收天线和信标灯以及海上回收吊索),两个反作用控制引擎和向前的隔热罩释放装置。

At about 25,000 feet (7,600 m) during reentry, the forward heat shield was jettisoned to expose the Earth landing equipment and permit deployment of the parachutes.[6]

再入期间,在约25,000英尺(7,600 m)处,前挡热板被抛弃,以打开地球着陆设备并允许降落伞展开。[6]

指令舱后舱Aft compartment

The aft compartment was located around the periphery of the command module at its widest part, just forward of (above) the aft heat shield. The compartment was divided into 24 bays containing 10 reaction control engines; the fuel, oxidizer, and helium tanks for the CM reaction control subsystem; water tanks; the crushable ribs of the impact attenuation system; and a number of instruments. The CM-SM umbilical, the point where wiring and plumbing ran from one module to the other, was also in the aft compartment. The panels of the heat shield covering the aft compartment were removable for maintenance of the equipment before flight.[6]

后舱位于指令模块外围的最宽处,位于后隔热罩的上方(正上方)。 这个舱被分成24个隔舱,其中包含10个反应控制引擎; 用于CM反应控制子系统的燃料,氧化剂和氦气罐; 水箱; 冲击衰减系统的可压碎的碎片; 和许多装置。 CM-SM集束电缆(在一个模块和另一个模块之间布线和配管)也位于后舱中。 覆盖后舱的隔热板面板可拆卸,以在飞行前维护设备。[6]

地球着陆系统Earth landing system

Scale model of the Apollo command and service module at the Euro Space Center in Belgium

比利时欧洲航天中心的阿波罗指挥与服务模块的比例模型,上面为指令舱,下面为服务舱。

Apollo 15 makes contact with the Pacific Ocean, 1971.

阿波罗15号的指令舱与太平洋接触,1971。

The components of the ELS were housed around the forward docking tunnel. The forward compartment was separated from the central by a bulkhead and was divided into four 90-degree wedges. The ELS consisted of two drogue parachutes with mortars, three main parachutes, three pilot parachutes to deploy the mains, three inflation bags for uprighting the capsule if necessary, a sea recovery cable, a dye marker, and a swimmer umbilical.

ELS的组件安置在前向对接通道周围。 前舱室通过隔板与中央隔开,并分成四个90度楔形。 ELS包括两个带有迫击炮的锥降降落伞,三个主降落伞,三个用于部署电源的飞行员降落伞,三个用于在必要时使舱室直立的充气袋,一个海上恢复电缆,一个染料标记和一个游泳者脐带【???】。

The command module’s center of mass was offset a foot or so from the center of pressure (along the symmetry axis). This provided a rotational moment during reentry, angling the capsule and providing some lift (a lift to drag ratio of about 0.368[7]). The capsule was then steered by rotating the capsule using thrusters; when no steering was required, the capsule was spun slowly, and the lift effects cancelled out. This system greatly reduced the g-force experienced by the astronauts, permitted a reasonable amount of directional control and allowed the capsule’s splashdown point to be targeted within a few miles.

指令模块的质心距压力中心(沿对称轴)偏移了一英尺左右。 这在折返过程中提供了旋转力矩,让指令舱倾斜并提供了一定的升力(升阻比约为0.368 [7])。 然后通过使用推进器旋转 指令舱 来控制 指令舱 ; 当不需要转向时,缓慢旋转指令舱 ,升力效果被抵消。 该系统大大降低了宇航员承受的重力,允许进行合理的方向控制,并且可以在几英里内瞄准指令舱的降落点。

At 24,000 feet (7.3 km) the forward heat shield was jettisoned using four pressurized-gas compression springs. The drogue parachutes were then deployed, slowing the spacecraft to 125 miles per hour (201 kilometres per hour). At 10,700 feet (3.3 km) the drogues were jettisoned and the pilot parachutes, which pulled out the mains, were deployed. These slowed the CM to 22 miles per hour (35 kilometres per hour) for splashdown. The portion of the capsule that first contacted the water surface contained four crushable ribs to further mitigate the force of impact. The command module could safely parachute to an ocean landing with only two parachutes deployed (as occurred on Apollo 15), the third parachute being a safety precaution.

在24,000英尺(7.3公里)处,指令舱前将用四个加压气体压缩弹簧扔掉隔热盾。 然后部署了引导降落伞,使航天器的速度降至每小时125英里(每小时201公里)。 在10,700英尺(3.3公里)处,降落被抛弃,引出主降落伞。 这些将CM减慢到每小时22英里(每小时35公里)的降落速度。 指令舱首先与水表面接触的部分包含四个可压碎的部件,以进一步减轻冲击力。 指挥模块仅部署两个降落伞就能安全降落到海洋上(如在阿波罗15号上的那样),第三个降落伞是安全预防措施。

Reaction control system[edit]

The command module attitude control system consisted of twelve 93-pound-force (410 N) attitude control jets; ten were located in the aft compartment, and two pitch motors in the forward compartment. Four tanks stored 270 pounds (120 kg) of monomethylhydrazine fuel and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer. They were pressurized by 1.1 pounds (0.50 kg) of helium stored at 4,150 pounds per square inch (28.6 MPa) in two tanks.[citation needed]

舱口Hatches

The forward docking hatch was mounted at the top of the docking tunnel. It was 30 inches (76 cm) in diameter and weighed 80 pounds (36 kg). It was constructed from two machined rings that were weld-joined to a brazed honeycomb panel. The exterior side was covered with a 0.5-inch (13 mm) of insulation and a layer of aluminum foil. It was latched in six places and operated by a pump handle. The hatch contained a valve in its center, used to equalize the pressure between the tunnel and the CM so the hatch could be removed.

前对接舱口安装在对接口的顶部。 它的直径为30英寸(76厘米),重80磅(36公斤)。 它是由两个焊接到钎焊蜂窝板的机加工环构成。 外侧覆盖有0.5英寸(13毫米)的绝缘层和一层铝箔。 它被锁在六个位置并由泵手柄操作。 舱口在其中央装有一个阀,用于平衡通道和CM之间的压力,因此舱口可被取下。

The unified crew hatch (UCH) measured 29 inches (74 cm) high, 34 inches (86 cm) wide, and weighed 225 pounds (102 kg). It was operated by a pump handle, which drove a ratchet mechanism to open or close fifteen latches simultaneously.

统一乘员舱(UCH)高29英寸(74厘米),宽34英寸(86厘米),重225磅(102千克)。 它由泵手柄操作,该手柄驱动棘轮机构同时打开或关闭15个闩锁。【??】

对接组件Docking assembly

Apollo’s mission required the LM to dock with the CSM on return from the Moon, and also in the transposition, docking, and extraction maneuver at the beginning of the translunar coast. The docking mechanism was a non-androgynous system, consisting of a probe located in the nose of the CSM, which connected to the drogue, a truncated cone located on the lunar module. The probe was extended like a scissor jack to capture the drogue on initial contact, known as soft docking. Then the probe was retracted to pull the vehicles together and establish a firm connection, known as “hard docking”. The mechanism was specified by NASA to have the following functions:[citation needed]

阿波罗(Apollo)的任务要求LM在从月球返回时与CSM对接,并且还需要在跨月海岸开始时进行换位,对接和提取动作。 对接机制是一个非雌雄同体的系统,由位于CSM鼻子中的一个探针组成,该探针与锥子相连,锥子位于月球模块上,该锥子是圆锥形的。 探针像剪式千斤顶一样延伸,以捕获最初接触时的锥套,称为软对接。 然后,探针缩回以将车辆拉在一起并建立牢固的连接,称为“硬对接”。 该机制由NASA指定具有以下功能:【 【??这段我实在是不知道怎么翻译了qwq,等以后知道了再改吧】 】

  • Allow the two vehicles to connect, and attenuate excess movement and energy caused by docking
  • Align and center the two vehicles and pull them together for capture
  • Provide a rigid structural connection between both vehicles, and be capable of removal and re-installation by a single crewman
  • Provide a means of remote separation of both vehicles for the return to Earth, using pyrotechnic fasteners at the circumference of the CSM docking collar
  • Provide redundant power and logic circuits for all electrical and pyrotechnic components.
  • 允许两个载具连接,并减轻对接引起的多余的移动和能量
  • 对齐并将两个载具的中心对在一起,以便捕捉
  • 在两个载具之间提供牢固的结构连接,并且仅需一名宇航员就能将其卸下和重新安装
  • 提供将两个载具远程分开以返回地球的方法,该方法将会用到在CSM对接圈周围的烟火紧固件( pyrotechnic fasteners ,又名爆炸螺栓, Explosive Bolt ,用来分离飞船部件,参考知乎
  • 为所有电气和烟火部件提供冗余电源和逻辑电路。

脱离器Coupling

The probe head located in the CSM was self-centering and gimbal-mounted to the probe piston. As the probe head engaged in the opening of the drogue socket, three spring-loaded latches depressed and engaged. These latches allowed a so-called ‘soft dock’ state and enabled the pitch and yaw movements in the two vehicles to subside. Excess movement in the vehicles during the ‘hard dock’ process could cause damage to the docking ring and put stress on the upper tunnel. A depressed locking trigger link at each latch allowed a spring-loaded spool to move forward, maintaining the toggle linkage in an over-center locked position. In the upper end of the lunar module tunnel, the drogue, which was constructed of 1-inch-thick aluminum honeycomb core, bonded front and back to aluminum face sheets, was the receiving end of the probe head capture latches.

位于CSM中的探头是自动对准中心的,并且可以万向安装在探头活塞上。 当探头接合到锥套的开口中时,三个弹簧式闩锁被压下并接合。 这些闩锁允许所谓的“软停靠”状态,并让两个载具的偏移运动停掉。 在“硬对接”过程中,载具可能过度运动,会损坏对接环并给上层通道造成压力。 每个闩锁处的下压锁定触发连杆允许弹簧加载的线轴向前移动,从而将肘节连杆保持在偏心锁定位置。 在登月舱隧道的上端,锥头是由1英寸厚的铝蜂窝芯构成,前后粘结在铝面板上,是探头捕获闩锁的接收端。【??这段tm又在说啥?】

缩回Retraction

After the initial capture and stabilization of the vehicles, the probe was capable of exerting a closing force of 1,000 pounds-force (4.4 kN) to draw the vehicles together. This force was generated by gas pressure acting on the center piston within the probe cylinder. Piston retraction compressed the probe and interface seals and actuated the 12 automatic ring latches which were located radially around the inner surface of the CSM docking ring. The latches were manually re-cocked in the docking tunnel by an astronaut after each hard docking event (lunar missions required two dockings).

在最初捕获并稳定载具之后,探针能够施加1,000磅力(4.4 kN)的闭合力将载具拉在一起。 该力是由气压作用在探头气缸内的中心活塞上产生的。 活塞缩回压缩了探头和接口密封件,并启动了12个自动环形闩锁,这些闩锁径向位于CSM对接环的内表面周围。 每次硬对接后,宇航员将闩锁手动重新塞入对接通道中(月球任务需要两次对接)。

分离Separation

An automatic extension latch attached to the probe cylinder body engaged and retained the probe center piston in the retracted position. Before vehicle separation in lunar orbit, manual cocking of the twelve ring latches was accomplished. The separating force from the internal pressure in the tunnel area was then transmitted from the ring latches to the probe and drogue. In undocking, the release of the capture latches was accomplished by electrically energizing tandem-mounted DC rotary solenoids located in the center piston.

附接到探针缸体的自动扩展闩锁将探针中心活塞接合并保持在缩回位置。 在月球轨道上的载具分离之前,完成了十二个环形闩的手动翘起。 然后,将与隧道区域内部压力的分离力从环形闩锁传递到探头和锥孔。 在解锁时,释放锁定闩锁是通过为位于中心活塞中的串联安装的直流旋转螺线管通电来实现的。

In a temperature degraded condition, a single motor release operation was done manually in the lunar module by depressing the locking spool through an open hole in the probe heads, while release from the CSM was done by rotating a release handle at the back of the probe to rotate the motor torque shaft manually.[8] 

在温度下降的情况下,通过在探月仪模块中手动通过通过探头头部上的开口孔压下锁定线轴来进行单个电机释放操作,而通过旋转探头背面的释放手柄来完成从CSM释放的操作 手动旋转电动机扭矩轴。[8]

When the command and lunar modules separated for the last time just before reentry, the probe and forward docking ring were pyrotechnically separated, leaving all docking equipment attached to the lunar module. In the event of an abort during launch from Earth, the same system would have explosively jettisoned the docking ring and probe from the CM as it separated from the boost protective cover.

重新进入前最后一次命令和登月舱分开时,探针和前对接环将用爆炸螺栓分开,让所有对接设备都连接到登月舱上。 如果从地球发射时发生中止事故【??】,则该系统将爆炸性地抛弃了对接环和CM,因为它与助推保护罩分离了。

机舱内部布置Cabin interior arrangement

Main control panel

The central pressure vessel of the command module was its sole habitable compartment. It had an interior volume of 210 cubic feet (5.9 m3) and housed the main control panels, crew seats, guidance and navigation systems, food and equipment lockers, the waste management system, and the docking tunnel.

指令模块的中央压力舱是其唯一的可居住隔间。 它的内部容积为210立方英尺(5.9立方米),并容纳了主控制面板,机组人员座椅,制导和导航系统,食品和设备储物柜,废物管理系统以及对接隧道。

Dominating the forward section of the cabin was the crescent-shaped main display panel measuring nearly 7 feet (2.1 m) wide and 3 feet (0.91 m) tall. It was arranged into three panels, each emphasizing the duties of each crew member. The mission commander’s panel (left side) included the velocity, attitude, and altitude indicators, the primary flight controls, and the main FDAI (Flight Director Attitude Indicator).

新月形主显示屏占据了机舱的前部区域,该主显示屏的尺寸为近7英尺(2.1 m)宽,3英尺(0.91 m)高。 它分为三个面板,每个面板对应着每个机组人员的职责。 任务指挥官的面板(左侧)包括速度,姿态和高度指示器,主要的飞行控制装置和主要的FDAI(飞行主管姿态指示器)。

The CM pilot served as navigator, so his control panel (center) included the Guidance and Navigation computer controls, the caution and warning indicator panel, the event timer, the Service Propulsion System and RCS controls, and the environmental control system controls.

CM飞行员担任导航员,因此他的控制面板(中部)包括制导和导航计算机控件,警告和警告指示面板,事件计时器,服务推进系统和RCS控件以及环境控制系统控件。

The LM pilot served as systems engineer, so his control panel (right-hand side) included the fuel cell gauges and controls, the electrical and battery controls, and the communications controls.

LM飞行员担任系统工程师,因此他的控制面板(右侧)包括燃料电池仪表和控件,电气和电池控件以及通讯控件。

Flanking the sides of the main panel were sets of smaller control panels. On the left side were a circuit breaker panel, audio controls, and the SCS power controls. On the right were additional circuit breakers and a redundant audio control panel, along with the environmental control switches. In total, the command module panels included 24 instruments, 566 switches, 40 event indicators, and 71 lights.

在主面板侧面的是一组较小的控制面板。 左侧是断路器面板,音频控件和SCS电源控件。 右侧是附加的断路器,冗余的音频控制面板以及环境控制开关。 总的来说,指令模块面板包括24个仪器,566个开关,40个事件指示器和71个指示灯。

The three crew couches were constructed from hollow steel tubing and covered in a heavy, fireproof cloth known as Armalon. The leg pans of the two outer couches could be folded in a variety of positions, while the hip pan of the center couch could be disconnected and laid on the aft bulkhead. One rotation and one translation hand controller was installed on the armrests of the left-hand couch. The translation controller was used by the crew member performing the transposition, docking, and extraction maneuver with the LM, usually the CM Pilot. The center and right-hand couches had duplicate rotational controllers. The couches were supported by eight shock-attenuating struts, designed to ease the impact of touchdown on water or, in case of an emergency landing, on solid ground.

这三个船员卧榻由空心钢管制成,并覆盖有厚重的防火布,称为Armalon。 可以将两个外部沙发的腿板折叠成不同的位置,而将中央沙发的臀板断开并放在尾舱壁上。 在左卧沙发的扶手上安装了一个旋转和一个平移手控制器。 乘员使用平移控制器与LM(通常为CM Pilot)进行换位,对接和提取操作。 中央和右侧卧榻具有同样的旋转控制器。 沙发由八个减震支柱支撑,旨在减轻接地对水的影响,或在紧急着陆的情况下减轻对坚实地面的影响。

Guidance and navigation equipment

制导和导航设备

Apollo Service Module Propulsion System

阿波罗服务模块推进系统

The contiguous cabin space was organized into six equipment bays:

载人舱空间被分为连续的六个设备舱:

  • The lower equipment bay, which housed the Guidance and Navigation computersextanttelescope, and Inertial Measurement Unit; various communications beacons; medical stores; an audio center; the S-band power amplifier; etc. There was also an extra rotation hand controller mounted on the bay wall, so the CM Pilot/navigator could rotate the spacecraft as needed while standing and looking through the telescope to find stars to take navigational measurements with the sextant. This bay provided a significant amount of room for the astronauts to move around in, unlike the cramped conditions which existed in the previous Mercury and Gemini spacecraft.
  • The left-hand forward equipment bay, which contained four food storage compartments, the cabin heat exchangerpressure suit connector, potable water supply, and G&N telescope eyepieces.
  • The right-hand forward equipment bay, which housed two survival kit containers, a data card kit, flight data books and files, and other mission documentation.
  • The left hand intermediate equipment bay, housing the oxygen surge tank, water delivery system, food supplies, the cabin pressure relief valve controls, and the ECS package.
  • The right hand intermediate equipment bay, which contained the bio instrument kits, waste management system, food and sanitary supplies, and a waste storage compartment.
  • The aft storage bay, behind the crew couches. This housed the 70 mm camera equipment, the astronaut’s garments, tool sets, storage bags, a fire extinguisherCO2 absorbers, sleep restraint ropes, spacesuit maintenance kits, 16mm camera equipment, and the contingency lunar sample container.
  • 下部设备舱装有制导和导航计算机,六分仪,望远镜和惯性测量单元; 各种通信信标; 医疗储物柜; 音频中心; S波段功率放大器; 在舱壁上还安装了一个额外的旋转手动控制器,因此CM飞行员/导航员可以根据需要旋转航天器,同时站立并通过望远镜观察以找到恒星,以对六分仪进行导航测量。 与以前的水星和双子座航天器存在的局促条件不同,这个舱为宇航员提供了足够的移动空间。
  • 左前设备舱,其中包含四个食物储藏室,机舱热交换器,压力服连接器,饮用水和G&N望远镜目镜。
  • 右前设备托架,其中装有两个救生工具箱,一个数据卡工具箱,飞行数据手册和文件以及其他任务文件。
  • 左侧中间设备舱,容纳氧气调压罐,输水系统,食物供应,机舱泄压阀控制装置和ECS套件。
  • 右侧中间设备舱,其中包含生物仪器套件,废物管理系统,食品和卫生用品以及废物储存室。
  • 宇航员躺椅后面的尾部储物湾。 里面装有70毫米相机设备,宇航员的衣服,工具套件,储物袋,灭火器,CO2吸收剂,睡眠约束绳,太空服维护套件,16毫米相机设备以及应急月球样品容器。

The CM had five windows. The two side windows measured 13 inches (330 mm) square next to the left and right-hand couches. Two forward-facing triangular rendezvous windows measured 8 by 13 inches (200 by 330 millimetres), used to aid in rendezvous and docking with the LM. The circular hatch window was 10 5/8 in. diameter (27 cm) and was directly over the center couch. Each window assembly consisted of three thick panes of glass. The inner two panes, which were made of aluminosilicate, made up part of the module’s pressure vessel. The fused silica outer pane served as both a debris shield and as part of the heat shield. Each pane had an anti-reflective coating and a blue-red reflective coating on the inner surface.

CM有五个窗口。 左侧和右侧沙发旁的两个侧窗尺寸为13英寸(330毫米)平方。 两个面向前方的三角形会合窗口,尺寸为8 x 13英寸(200 x 330毫米),用于辅助与LM的会合和对接。 圆形舱口窗的直径为10 5/8英寸(27厘米),直接位于中央沙发上方。 每个窗户组件均由三块厚玻璃板组成。 内部的两个由铝硅酸盐制成的窗格构成了模块压力容器的一部分。 熔融石英外板既用作碎屑防护板,又用作隔热板的一部分。 每个窗格的内表面均具有抗反射涂层和蓝红色反射涂层。

技术指标Specifications

Apollo 14 command module Kitty Hawk at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

位于佛罗里达州肯尼迪航天中心的阿波罗14号命令模块雏鹰号(Kitty Hawk)。

Apollo 15 command module Endeavour at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio

位于俄亥俄州代顿的美国空军国家博物馆的阿波罗15号指挥舱奋进号

  • Crew: 3
  • Crew cabin volume: 218 cu ft (6.2 m3) living space, pressurized 366 cu ft (10.4 m3)
  • Length: 11.4 ft (3.5 m)
  • Diameter: 12.8 ft (3.9 m)
  • Mass: 12,250 lb (5,560 kg)
    • Structure mass: 3,450 lb (1,560 kg)
    • Heat shield mass: 1,870 lb (850 kg)
    • RCS engine mass: twelve x 73.3 lb (33.2 kg)
    • Recovery equipment mass: 540 lb (240 kg)
    • Navigation equipment mass: 1,110 lb (500 kg)
    • Telemetry equipment mass: 440 lb (200 kg)
    • Electrical equipment mass: 1,500 lb (680 kg)
    • Communications systems mass: 220 lb (100 kg)
    • Crew couches and provisions mass: 1,200 lb (540 kg)
    • Environmental Control System mass: 440 lb (200 kg)
    • Misc. contingency mass: 440 lb (200 kg)
  • RCS: twelve 93 lbf (410 N) thrusters, firing in pairs
  • RCS propellants: MMH/N2O4
  • RCS propellant mass: 270 lb (120 kg)
  • Drinking water capacity: 33 lb (15 kg)
  • Waste water capacity: 58 lb (26 kg)
  • CO2 scrubber: lithium hydroxide
  • Odor absorber: activated charcoal
  • Electric system batteries: three 40 ampere-hour silver-zinc batteries; two 0.75 ampere-hour silver-zinc pyrotechnic batteries
  • Parachutes: two 16 feet (4.9 m) conical ribbon drogue parachutes; three 7.2 feet (2.2 m) ringshot pilot parachutes; three 83.5 feet (25.5 m) ringsail main parachutes
  • 宇航员:3名
  • 乘员舱容积:6.2立方米(218立方英尺)的居住空间,加压366立方英尺(10.4立方米)
  • 长度:3.5毫米(11.4英尺)
  • 直径:3.9毫米(12.8英尺)
  • 质量:12,250磅(5,560千克)
    • 结构重量:3,450磅(1,560千克)
    • 隔热屏质量:1,870磅(850千克)
    • RCS发动机重量:十二x 73.3磅(33.2千克)
    • 回收设备质量:540磅(240千克)
    • 导航设备质量:1,110磅(500千克)
    • 遥测设备质量:440磅(200千克)
    • 电气设备重量:1,500磅(680千克)
    • 通讯系统重量:220磅(100千克)
    • 乘员沙发和配重:1,200磅(540千克)
    • 环境控制系统质量:440磅(200千克)
    • 杂项 意外事故重量:440磅(200千克)
  • RCS:十二对93 lbf(410 N)推进器,成对发射
  • RCS推进剂:MMH / N2O4
  • RCS推进剂质量:270磅(120千克)
  • 饮用水容量:33磅(15千克)
  • 废水容量:58磅(26千克)
  • 二氧化碳洗涤塔:氢氧化锂
  • 气味吸收剂:活性炭
  • 电气系统电池:三节40安培小时的银锌电池; 两节0.75安培小时的银锌烟火电池
  • 降落伞:两个16英尺(4.9 m)的锥形带状锥降落伞; 3个7.2英尺(2.2 m)的响尾蛇降落伞; 3个83.5英尺(25.5 m)环帆主降落伞

服务模块Service module (SM)

Block II service module interior components

Block II服务模块内部结构

构造Construction

The service module was an unpressurized cylindrical structure, measuring 24 feet 7 inches (7.49 m) long and 12 feet 10 inches (3.91 m) in diameter. The interior was a simple structure consisting of a central tunnel section 44 inches (1.1 m) in diameter, surrounded by six pie-shaped sectors. The sectors were topped by a forward bulkhead and fairing, separated by six radial beams, covered on the outside by four honeycomb panels, and supported by an aft bulkhead and engine heat shield. The sectors were not all equal 60° angles, but varied according to required size.

维修模块为不加压的圆柱形结构,长24英尺7英寸(7.49 m),直径12英尺10英寸(3.91 m)。 内部是一个简单的结构,由直径为44英寸(1.1 m)的中央隧道部分组成,周围是六个扇形。 这些扇区的顶部是前隔板和整流罩,由六个放射状横梁隔开,在外面由四个蜂窝板覆盖,并由后隔板和发动机隔热板支撑。 扇形并非全部等于60°角,而是根据所需大小而变化。

  • Sector 1 (50°) was originally unused, so it was filled with ballast to maintain the SM’s center-of gravity. On the last three lunar landing (I-J class) missions, it carried the scientific instrument module (SIM) which contained a package of lunar orbital sensors and a subsatellite.
  • Sector 2 (70°) contained the service propulsion system (SPS) oxidizer sump tank, so called because it directly fed the engine and was kept continuously filled by a separate storage tank, until the latter was empty. The sump tank was a cylinder with hemispherical ends, 153.8 inches (3.91 m) high, 51 inches (1.3 m) in diameter, and contained 13,923 pounds (6,315 kg) of oxidizer.
  • Sector 3 (60°) contained the SPS oxidizer storage tank, which was the same shape as the sump tank but slightly smaller at 154.47 inches (3.924 m) high and 44 inches (1.1 m) in diameter, and held 11,284 pounds (5,118 kg) of oxidizer.
  • Sector 4 (50°) contained the electrical power system (EPS) fuel cells with their hydrogen and oxygen reactants.
  • Sector 5 (70°) contained the SPS fuel sump tank. This was the same size as the oxidizer sump tank and held 8,708 pounds (3,950 kg) of fuel.
  • Sector 6 (60°) contained the SPS fuel storage tank, also the same size as the oxidizer storage tank. It held 7,058 pounds (3,201 kg) of fuel.
  • 扇区1(50°)最初未被使用,因此填充了配重以保持SM的重心。在最近的三个月球着陆(I-J级)任务中,它携带了科学仪器模块(SIM),其中包含一整套月球轨道传感器和一个卫星。
  • 第2区(70°)装有维修推进系统(service propulsion system ,以下称SPS)氧化剂储油罐,之所以这样称呼是因为它直接给发动机供气,并由一个单独的储罐连续填充,直到后者变空。污水箱是一个具有半球形端部,高153.8英寸(3.91 m),直径51英寸(1.3 m)的圆筒,并装有13,923磅(6,315 kg)的氧化剂。
  • 第3区(60°)装有SPS氧化剂储罐,其形状与污水箱相同,但稍小,高154.47英寸(3.924 m),直径44英寸(1.1 m),重11284磅(5118千克) )的氧化剂。
  • 第4区(50°)包含电力系统( electrical power system ,EPS)燃料电池及其氢和氧反应物。
  • 第5区(70°)装有SPS油箱。它的尺寸与氧化剂贮槽相同,可容纳8,708磅(3,950千克)的燃料。
  • 第6区(60度)装有SPS燃料储罐,其尺寸也与氧化剂储罐相同。它容纳了7,058磅(3201千克)的燃料。

The forward fairing measured 2 feet 10 inches (860 mm) long and housed the reaction control system (RCS) computer, power distribution block, ECS controller, separation controller, and components for the high-gain antenna, and included eight EPS radiators and the umbilical connection arm containing the main electrical and plumbing connections to the CM. The fairing externally contained a retractable forward-facing spotlight; an EVA floodlight to aid the command module pilot in SIM film retrieval; and a flashing rendezvous beacon visible from 54 nautical miles (100 km) away as a navigation aid for rendezvous with the LM.

前整流罩尺寸为2英尺10英寸(860毫米)长,安装了反应控制系统( reaction control system ,RCS)计算机,配电模块,ECS控制器,分离控制器和高增益天线组件,并包括八个EPS辐射器和一个集束电缆连接臂,包含与CM的主要电气连接和管道连接。 整流罩的外部装有可伸缩的朝前聚光灯; EVA泛光灯,用于协助命令模块飞行员进行SIM胶片检索; 从54海里(100公里)处可以看到一个闪烁的会合信标,作为LM会合的导航辅助。

The SM was connected to the CM using three tension ties and six compression pads. The tension ties were stainless steel straps bolted to the CM’s aft heat shield. It remained attached to the command module throughout most of the mission, until being jettisoned just prior to re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. At jettison, the CM umbilical connections were cut using a pyrotechnic-activated guillotine assembly. Following jettison, the SM aft translation thrusters automatically fired continuously to distance it from the CM, until either the RCS fuel or the fuel cell power was depleted. The roll thrusters were also fired for five seconds to make sure it followed a different trajectory from the CM and faster break-up on re-entry.

使用三个拉紧扎带和六个压缩垫将SM连接到CM。 拉紧带是用螺栓固定在CM尾部隔热板上的不锈钢带。 它在整个任务的大部分时间内一直与命令模块保持联系,直到在再入地球大气层之前被扔掉。 在抛射时,使用爆炸螺栓切断与CM的连接。 抛弃后,SM尾部平移推进器会自动连续发射以使其与CM保持距离,直到RCS燃料或燃料电池的动力耗尽为止。 滚动推力器也被开启了五秒钟,以确保它遵循与CM不同的轨迹,并能在再入大气时尽快被烧完。

服务推进系统Service propulsion system

The SPS engine was used to place the Apollo spacecraft into and out of lunar orbit, and for mid-course corrections between the Earth and Moon. It also served as a retrorocket to perform the deorbit burn for Earth orbital Apollo flights. The engine selected was the AJ10-137,[9] which used Aerozine 50 as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer to produce 20,500 lbf (91 kN) of thrust. The thrust level was twice what was needed to accomplish the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) mission mode, because the engine was originally sized to lift the CSM off of the lunar surface in the direct ascent mode assumed in original planning[10] (see Choosing a mission mode.) A contract was signed in April 1962 for the Aerojet-General company to start developing the engine, before the LOR mode was officially chosen in July of that year.[11]

SPS引擎用于把阿波罗号飞船送入月球轨道或从月球轨道离开,以及在地球和月球之间进行中途校正。 它也可以作为反火箭,对地球轨道阿波罗飞行进行除轨燃烧。 选择的发动机是AJ10-137,[9],它使用Aerozine 50作为燃料,并使用四氧化二氮(N2O4)作为氧化剂,以产生20,500 lbf(91 kN)的推力。 推力水平是完成月球轨道交会( lunar orbit rendezvous  ,LOR)任务模式所需压力的两倍,因为发动机的尺寸最初是按照原始计划中假定的直接发射模式将CSM从月球表面发射上去[10](请参阅选择 1962年4月,Aerojet-General公司与该公司签订了合同,开始开发发动机,然后于当年7月正式选择LOR模式。[11]

The propellants were pressure-fed to the engine by 39.2 cubic feet (1.11 m3) of gaseous helium at 3,600 pounds per square inch (25 MPa), carried in two 40-inch (1.0 m) diameter spherical tanks.[12]

推进剂由39.2立方英尺(1.11立方米)的气态氦以3,600磅/平方英寸(25 MPa)的压力送入发动机,并装在两个直径40英寸(1.0 m)的球形储罐中。[12]

The exhaust nozzle engine bell measured 152.82 inches (3.882 m) long and 98.48 inches (2.501 m) wide at the base. It was mounted on two gimbals to keep the thrust vector aligned with the spacecraft’s center of mass during SPS firings. The combustion chamber and pressurant tanks were housed in the central tunnel.

排气喷嘴发动机罩的底部长152.82英寸(3.882 m),宽98.48英寸(2.501 m)。 它安装在两个万向架上,以在SPS发射期间使推力矢量与航天器的质心对齐。 燃烧室和增压箱位于中央隧道内。

反应控制系统Reaction control system

Four clusters of four reaction control system (RCS) thrusters were installed around the upper section of the SM every 90°. The sixteen-thruster arrangement provided rotation and translation control in all three spacecraft axes. Each R-4D thruster generated 100 pounds-force (440 N) of thrust, and used monomethylhydrazine (MMH) as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as oxidizer. Each quad assembly measured 8 by 3 feet (2.44 by 0.91 m) and had its own fuel tanks, oxidizer tanks, helium pressurant tank, and associated valves and regulators.

每隔90°在SM的上部周围安装四个推进器集群,每个集群有四个反作用控制系统(RCS)推进器。 16推进器装置可在所有三个航天器轴上提供旋转和平移控制。 每个R-4D推进器产生100磅力(440 N)的推力,并使用一甲基肼(MMH)作为燃料和四氧化二氮(NTO)作为氧化剂。 每个四边形组件的尺寸为8 x 3英尺(2.44 x 0.91 m),并具有自己的燃油箱,氧化剂箱,氦气增压箱以及相关的阀门和调节器。

Each cluster of thrusters had its own independent primary fuel (MMH) tank containing 69.1 pounds (31.3 kg), secondary fuel tank containing 45.2 pounds (20.5 kg), primary oxidizer tank containing 137.0 pounds (62.1 kg), and secondary oxidizer tank containing 89.2 pounds (40.5 kg). The fuel and oxidizer tanks were pressurised by a single liquid helium tank containing 1.35 pounds (0.61 kg).[13] Back flow was prevented by a series of check valves, and back flow and ullage requirements were resolved by containing the fuel and oxidizer in Teflon bladders which separated the propellants from the helium pressurant.[14]

每个推力器群都有自己的独立主油箱(MMH),容量为69.1磅(31.3千克),二级油箱,容量为45.2磅(20.5 kg),一级氧化剂箱,容量为137.0磅(62.1 kg),二级氧化剂箱,容量为89.2 磅(40.5公斤)。 燃料和氧化剂罐由装有1.35磅(0.61千克)的单个液氦罐加压。[13] 通过一系列止回阀防止了回流,并通过将燃料和氧化剂装在将聚四氟乙烯推进剂与氦气增压剂分开的聚四氟乙烯囊中来解决了回流和损耗的要求。[14]

All of the elements were duplicated, resulting in four completely independent RCS clusters. Only two adjacent functioning units were needed to allow complete attitude control.[14]

所有元素都是完全一样了,形成了四个完全独立的RCS集群。 只需要两个相邻的功能单元就可以完全控制姿态。[14]

The lunar module used a similar four-quad arrangement of the identical thruster engines for its RCS.

月球舱模块的RCS使用相同的推进器发动机的类似的四联布置。

电力系统Electrical power system

Electrical power was produced by three fuel cells, each measuring 44 inches (1.1 m) tall by 22 inches (0.56 m) in diameter and weighing 245 pounds (111 kg). These combined hydrogen and oxygen to generate electrical power, and produced drinkable water as a byproduct. The cells were fed by two hemispherical-cylindrical 31.75-inch (0.806 m) diameter tanks, each holding 29 pounds (13 kg) of liquid hydrogen, and two spherical 26-inch (0.66 m) diameter tanks, each holding 326 pounds (148 kg) of liquid oxygen (which also supplied the environmental control system).

电力由三个燃料电池产生,每个燃料电池高44英寸(1.1 m),直径22英寸(0.56 m),重245磅(111千克)。 它们将氢和氧结合起来产生电能,并产生了副产品——可饮用水。 电池由两个直径为31.75英寸(0.806 m)的半球形圆柱罐,每个分别容纳29磅(13 kg)液态氢和两个球形的26英寸(0.66 m)直径的球形罐(每个罐分别为326磅(148))供料。 公斤)的液态氧(也提供给环境控制系统)。

On the flight of Apollo 13, the EPS was disabled by an explosive rupture of one oxygen tank, which punctured the second tank and led to the loss of all oxygen. After the accident, a third oxygen tank was added to obviate operation below 50% tank capacity. That allowed the elimination of the tank’s internal stirring-fan equipment, which had contributed to the failure.

在阿波罗13号(Apollo 13)的飞行中,EPS由于一个氧气罐的爆炸性破裂而无法使用,后者也刺穿第二个氧气罐并导致所有氧气的流失。 事故发生后,宇航员立即添加了第三个氧气罐,以消除低于50%的氧气罐容量的操作。 这样就消除了造成故障的氧气管内部风扇鼓动设备。

Also starting with Apollo 14, a 400 Ah auxiliary battery was added to the SM for emergency use. Apollo 13 had drawn heavily on its entry batteries in the first hours after the explosion, and while this new battery could not power the CM for more than 5–10 hours it would buy time in the event of a temporary loss of all three fuel cells. Such an event had occurred when Apollo 12 was struck twice by lightning during launch.

同样从Apollo 14开始,在SM中添加了400 Ah辅助电池用于紧急情况。 阿波罗13号在爆炸后的头几个小时就大量使用了新电池,尽管这种新电池无法为CM供电超过5-10小时,但如果所有三个燃料电池都丢失了,它可以暂时支撑一段时间 。 当阿波罗12号在发射过程中被雷击两次时,也发生了这样的事件。

Three of these fuel cells supplied electric power to the spacecraft on lunar flights.

这样的燃料电池中的三个将在月球飞行中为航天器供电。

环境控制系统Environmental control system

Cabin atmosphere was maintained at 5 pounds per square inch (34 kPa) of pure oxygen from the same liquid oxygen tanks that fed the electrical power system’s fuel cells. Potable water supplied by the fuel cells was stored for drinking and food preparation. A thermal control system using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as coolant dumped waste heat from the CM cabin and electronics to outer space via two 30-square-foot (2.8 m2) radiators located on the lower section of the exterior walls, one covering sectors 2 and 3 and the other covering sectors 5 and 6.[15]

来自为电力系统燃料电池供电的液体氧气罐的机舱气氛保持在每平方英寸5磅(34 kPa)的纯氧气。 储存由燃料电池提供的饮用水以供饮用和准备食物。 一种热控制系统,使用水和乙二醇的混合物作为冷却剂,通过位于外墙下部的两个30平方英尺(2.8平方米)的散热器将废热从CM机舱和电子设备释放到外太空,这两个散热器一个覆盖了 组件2和3,另一个覆盖了组件5和6。

通信系统Communications system

Short-range communications between the CSM and LM employed two VHF scimitar antennas mounted on the SM just above the ECS radiators.

CSM和LM之间的短距离通信使用了两个VHF弯刀天线,它们安装在ECS辐射器上方的SM上。

A steerable unified S-band high-gain antenna for long-range communications with Earth was mounted on the aft bulkhead. This was an array of four 31-inch (0.79 m) diameter reflectors surrounding a single 11-inch (0.28 m) square reflector. During launch it was folded down parallel to the main engine to fit inside the Spacecraft-to-LM Adapter (SLA). After CSM separation from the SLA, it deployed at a right angle to the SM.

在尾舱壁上安装了可操纵的统一S波段高增益天线,用于与地球进行远程通信。 这是四个直径为31英寸(0.79 m)的反射器的阵列,它们围绕一个11英寸(0.28 m)的正方形反射器。 在发射过程中,它被折叠成与主机平行,以适合航天器到LM适配器( Spacecraft-to-LM Adapter ,SLA)。 CSM与SLA分离后,它与SM成直角部署。

Four omnidirectional S-band antennas on the CM were used when the attitude of the CSM kept the high-gain antenna from being pointed at Earth. These antennas were also used between SM jettison and landing.[16]

当CSM的姿态让高增益天线没法指向地球时,那么CM上的四个全向S波段天线江北启用。 这些天线还用于SM降落和着陆之间。[16]

【译注:高增益天线传输信号距离远,但只能朝着一个方向。全向天线能朝着所有方向,但传输距离短。在指令舱返回地球时,再入大气时大概有3分钟无法用无线电与发射基地联络。】

技术参数Specifications

  • Length: 24.8 ft (7.6 m)
  • Diameter: 12.8 ft (3.9 m)
  • Mass: 54,060 lb (24,520 kg)
    • Structure mass: 4,200 lb (1,900 kg)
    • Electrical equipment mass: 2,600 lb (1,200 kg)
    • Service Propulsion (SPS) engine mass: 6,600 lb (3,000 kg)
    • SPS engine propellants: 40,590 lb (18,410 kg)
  • RCS thrust: two or four x 100 lbf (440 N)
  • RCS Propellants: MMH/N2O4
  • SPS engine thrust: 20,500 lbf (91,000 N)
  • SPS engine propellants: (UDMH/N2H4)/N2O4
  • SPS ISP: 314 s (3,100 N·s/kg)
  • Spacecraft delta v: 9,200 ft/s (2,800 m/s)
  • Electrical System: three 1.4 kW 30 V DC fuel cells
  • 长度:7.6毫米(24.8英尺)
  • 直径:3.9毫米(12.8英尺)
  • 质量:54,060磅(24,520千克)
  • 结构重量:4,200磅(1,900千克)
  • 电气设备重量:2,600磅(1,200千克)
  • 维修推进(SPS)发动机质量:6,600磅(3,000千克)
  • SPS发动机推进剂:40,590磅(18,410千克)
  • RCS推力:2或4 x 100 lbf(440 N)
  • RCS推进剂:MMH / N2O4
  • SPS发动机推力:20,500 lbf(91,000 N)
  • SPS发动机推进剂:(UDMH / N2H4)/ N2O4
  • SPS ISP:314 s(3,100 N·s / kg)
  • 航天器增量v:9,200 ft / s(2,800 m / s)
  • 电气系统:三个1.4 kW 30 V DC燃料电池

为土星IB任务做的修改Modifications for Saturn IB missions

Apollo CSM in white for a Skylab mission, docked to the Skylab space station

白色的Apollo CSM执行Skylab任务,停靠在Skylab空间站

The payload capability of the Saturn IB launch vehicle used to launch the Low Earth Orbit missions (Apollo 1 (planned), Apollo 7Skylab 2Skylab 3Skylab 4, and Apollo-Soyuz) could not handle the 66,900-pound (30,300 kg) mass of the fully fueled CSM. This was not a problem, because the spacecraft delta-v requirement of these missions was much smaller than that of the lunar mission; therefore they could be launched with less than half of the full SPS propellant load, by filling only the SPS sump tanks and leaving the storage tanks empty. The CSMs launched in orbit on Saturn IB ranged from 32,558 pounds (14,768 kg) (Apollo-Soyuz), to 46,000 pounds (21,000 kg) (Skylab 4).

用于发射近地轨道飞行任务 (计划中的阿波罗1号,阿波罗7号,Skylab 2,Skylab 3,Skylab 4和Apollo-Soyuz) 的土星IB运载工具的有效载荷能力无法处理66,900磅(30,300千克) 的满载CSM的质量。 但这不是问题,因为这些任务的航天器的delta-v要求比月球任务要小得多。 因此,通过仅注满SPS燃料箱并保持储物箱为空,就可以在不到SPS推进剂总负荷一半的情况下将其发射。 在土星IB轨道上发射的CSM范围从32,558磅(14,768千克)(阿波罗-联盟号)到46,000磅(21,000千克)(Skylab 4)。

The omnidirectional antennas sufficed for ground communications during the Earth orbital missions, so the high-gain S-band antenna on the SM was omitted from Apollo 1, Apollo 7, and the three Skylab flights. It was restored for the Apollo-Soyuz mission to communicate through the ATS-6 satellite in geostationary orbit, an experimental precursor to the current TDRSS system.

在地球轨道飞行任务期间,全向天线足以用于地面通信,因此,阿波罗1号,阿波罗7号和三个Skylab飞行中均省略了SM上的高增益S波段天线。 阿波罗-联盟号飞行任务得以恢复,以便通过地球静止轨道上的ATS-6卫星进行通信,这是当前TDRSS系统的实验先驱。

On the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions, some additional dry weight was saved by removing the otherwise empty fuel and oxidizer storage tanks (leaving the partially filled sump tanks), along with one of the two helium pressurant tanks.[17] This permitted the addition of some extra RCS propellant to allow for use as a backup for the deorbit burn in case of possible SPS failure.[18]

在Skylab和Apollo-Soyuz任务中,通过拆除原本为空的燃料和氧化剂储罐(保留部分填充的储油罐)以及两个氦增压罐之一,节省了一些额外的干重。[17] 这样就可以添加一些额外的RCS推进剂,以便在可能发生SPS失败的情况下用作脱轨燃烧的备用材料。[18]

Since the spacecraft for the Skylab missions would not be occupied for most of the mission, there was lower demand on the power system, so one of the three fuel cells was deleted from these SMs.

由于执行Skylab任务的航天器不会在大多数任务中被占用,因此对电力系统的需求较低,因此从这些SM中删除了三个燃料电池之一。

The command module could be modified to carry extra astronauts as passengers by adding jump seat couches in the aft equipment bay. CM-119 was fitted with two jump seats as a Skylab Rescue vehicle, which was never used.[19]

通过在船尾设备舱中增加跳椅沙发,可以对指令模块进行改进,以容纳更多的宇航员。 作为Skylab救援车, CM-119装有两个跳座椅, 但从未使用过。[19]

Block I和Block II的主要不同Major differences between Block I and Block II

指令模块Command module

  • The Block II used a one-piece, quick-release, outward opening hatch instead of the two-piece plug hatch used on Block I, in which the inner piece had to be unbolted and placed inside the cabin in order to enter or exit the spacecraft (a flaw that doomed the Apollo 1 crew). The Block II hatch could be opened quickly in case of an emergency. (Both hatch versions were covered with an extra, removable section of the Boost Protective Cover which surrounded the CM to protect it in case of a launch abort.)
  • The Block I forward access tunnel was smaller than Block II, and intended only for emergency crew egress after splashdown in case of problems with the main hatch. It was covered by the nose of the forward heat shield during flight. Block II contained a shorter forward heat shield with a flat removable hatch, beneath a docking ring and probe mechanism which captured and held the LM.
  • The aluminized PET film layer, which gave the Block II heat shield a shiny mirrored appearance, was absent on Block I, exposing the light gray epoxy resin material, which on some flights was painted white.
  • The Block I VHF scimitar antennas were located in two semicircular strakes originally thought necessary to help stabilize the CM during reentry. However, the uncrewed reentry tests proved these to be unnecessary for stability, and also aerodynamically ineffective at high simulated lunar reentry speeds. Therefore, the strakes were removed from Block II and the antennas were moved to the service module.
  • The Block I CM/SM umbilical connector was smaller than on Block II, located near the crew hatch instead of nearly 180 degrees away from it. The separation point was between the modules, instead of the larger hinged arm mounted on the service module, separating at the CM sidewall on Block II.
  • The two negative pitch RCS engines located in the forward compartment were arranged vertically on Block I, and horizontally on Block II.
  • II座使用一体式,快速释放,向外打开的舱口,而不是I座使用的两件式插入式舱口,这样导致Block I在内部必须拆下内部零件并将其放置在机舱内,以便进入或退出机舱(这就是阿波罗1号的缺点)。紧急情况下,Block II舱口可以快速打开。 (两个舱口版本都盖有Boost保护罩的额外的可移动部分,该部分围绕CM以在发射中止时对其进行保护。)
  • I区的前向通道比II区的通道小,仅在降落后主舱口出现问题时才供紧急人员离开。在飞行过程中,它被前挡热板的的鼻覆盖。 II座在对接环和探针机构下方装有一个较短的前热防护屏,带有一个可移动的平舱口,该捕捉器固定并固定了LM。
  • 在Block I上没有镀铝的PET膜层,该涂层使Block II隔热板具有镜面光泽,使浅灰色的环氧树脂材料暴露,该材料在某些螺纹上被涂成白色。
  • Block I VHF弯刀天线位于两个半圆形波状板中,最初被认为是在再入期间有助于稳定CM所必需的。但是,无人的再入试验证明,这些对于稳定来说用处不大,并且模拟月球再入的高速度下在空气动力学上也没什么效果。因此,从II座上卸下了板条,并将天线移至了服务模块。
  • I座CM / SM集束电缆连接器比II座小,位于船员舱口附近,而不是离其近180度。分离点位于模块之间,而不是安装在维修模块上的较大的铰接臂,而是在Block II的CM侧壁处分离。
  • 位于前舱的两个负螺距RCS发动机垂直排列在I区,水平排列在II区

服务模块Service module

  • On the Apollo 6 uncrewed Block I flight, the SM was painted white to match the command module’s appearance. On Apollo 1, Apollo 4, and all the Block II spacecraft, the SM walls were left unpainted except for the EPS and ECS radiators, which were white.
  • The EPS and ECS radiators were redesigned for Block II. Block I had three larger EPS radiators located on Sectors 1 and 4. The ECS radiators were located on the aft section of Sectors 2 and 5.
  • The Block I fuel cells were located at the aft bulkhead in Sector 4, and their hydrogen and oxygen tanks were located in Sector 1.
  • Block I had slightly longer SPS fuel and oxidizer tanks which carried more propellant than Block II.
  • The Block II aft heat shield was a rectangular shape with slightly rounded corners at the propellant tank sectors. The Block I shield was the same basic shape, but bulged out slightly near the ends more like an hourglass or figure eight, to cover more of the tanks.
  • 在Apollo 6无人驾驶的Block I飞行中,SM被涂成白色以匹配指令模块的外观。 在阿波罗1号,阿波罗4号和所有Block II航天器上,除了白色的EPS和ECS散热器外,SM壁均未上漆。
  • EPS和ECS散热器已针对Block II重新设计。 第I块在第1和第4扇区上有三个较大的EPS散热器。ECS散热器在第2和第5扇区的后部区域中。
  • Block I燃料电池位于第4区的船尾舱壁,其氢气和氧气罐位于第1区。
  • I区的SPS燃料和氧化剂罐长一些,而II区的推进剂含量更高。
  • Block II尾部隔热板为矩形,在推进剂储罐区处有稍圆的角。 Block I防护罩的基本形状相同,但在端部略微凸出,更像是沙漏或八字形,以覆盖更多的燃料箱。

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