阿波罗登月舱Apollo Lunar Module

简介

The Apollo Lunar Module, or simply lunar module (LM, pronounced “lem”), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander spacecraft that was flown from lunar orbit to the Moon’s surface during the U.S. Apollo program. It was the first crewed spacecraft to operate exclusively in the airless vacuum of space, and remains the only crewed vehicle to land anywhere beyond Earth.

阿波罗登月舱,简称为登月舱(LM,发音为“ lem”),最初称为月球短程行动舱(Lunar Excursion Module,LEM),是在美国阿波罗计划期间从月球轨道飞行到月球表面的着陆航天器。它是第一批专门在真空中运行的载人航天器,到目前为止,仍然是唯一的降落在地球以外的载人航天器。

Structurally and aerodynamically incapable of flight through Earth’s atmosphere, the two-stage lunar module was ferried to lunar orbit attached to the Apollo command and service module (CSM), about twice its mass. Its crew of two flew the complete lunar module from lunar orbit to the Moon’s surface. During takeoff, the spent descent stage was used as a launch pad for the ascent stage which then flew back to the command module, after which it was also discarded.

由于在结构上和空气动力学上都无法进入地球大气层飞行,两级的登月舱将被送到阿波罗指挥与服务舱(CSM)所在的月球轨道,后者约为前者质量的两倍。登月舱两个机组人员,将驾驶完整的两极登月舱飞向月球表面时。在之后离开月球表面时,两级登月舱的下面一级将用作上面一级的发射台,然后飞回指令舱,之后也登月舱的上面一级也将被丢弃。

Overseen by Grumman Aircraft, the LM’s development was plagued with problems that delayed its first uncrewed flight by about ten months and its first crewed flight by about three months. Still, the LM became the most reliable component of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle, the only component never to suffer a failure that could not be corrected in time to prevent abort of a landing mission.[1] The total cost of the LM for development and the units produced was $21.3 billion in 2016 dollars, adjusting from a nominal total of $2.2 billion[2] using the NASA New Start Inflation Indices.[3]

在Grumman飞机公司的监督下,LM的发展受到困扰,导致其首次无人驾驶飞行推迟了约10个月,而其首次载人飞行也推迟了约3个月。 LM仍然是阿波罗/土星系列航天器中最可靠的部件,也是唯一从未有过无法挽回的故障的部件。[1] LM用于开发和生产的总成本在2016年美元大约是213亿美元,这个数字在那个年代是2.2亿,但现在已经用NASA的通货膨胀计算索引修正过了。[3]

Ten lunar modules were launched into space. Of these, six landed humans on the Moon from 1969-1972. The first two launched were test flights in low Earth orbit—the first without a crew, the second with one. Another was used by Apollo 10 for a dress rehearsal flight in low lunar orbit, without landing. One lunar module functioned as a lifeboat for the crew of Apollo 13, providing life support and propulsion when their CSM was disabled by an oxygen tank explosion en route to the Moon, forcing the crew to abandon plans for landing.

十个登月舱被发射到太空。 其中,从1969年到1972年,有6个登月舱将人类送到了月球表面。 十个中的前两个是在低地球轨道上进行的测试飞行——第一个没有机组人员,第二个有一个。 阿波罗10号使用另一架飞机在低月球轨道进行了一次实验飞行,没有着陆。 还有一个登月舱为阿波罗13号的船员充当了救生艇,当他们因前往月球的氧气罐爆炸导致指令舱被被损坏时,登月舱提供了生命支持和推进,宇航员不得不放弃了着陆计划。

The six landed descent stages remain at their landing sites; their corresponding ascent stages crashed into the Moon following use. One ascent stage (Apollo 10’s Snoopy) was abandoned to a heliocentric orbit after its descent stage was intentionally jettisoned, the latter having also crashed on the Moon. The other three LMs were burned up in the Earth’s atmosphere: the four stages of Apollo 5 and Apollo 9 each re-entered separately, while Apollo 13’s Aquarius re-entered complete, following emergency maneuvers.

六个登月舱的下面一部分在登月后就被永远留在了登陆地,它们相应的上面部分在将宇航员送回指令舱后也被丢弃。 阿波罗10号的登月舱的上面部分,在脱离了指令舱后进入了一个日心轨道,在这之前下面部分被脱离后就坠毁在月球上。 其他三个登月舱在地球大气层中被烧毁:阿波罗5号和阿波罗9号两个登月舱的四个部分分别再入大气,而阿波罗13号在紧急逃生之后又完整地完成了再入大气。

运行情况Operational profile

At launch, the lunar module sat directly beneath the command and service module (CSM) with legs folded, inside the Spacecraft-to-LM adapter (SLA) attached to the S-IVB third stage of the Saturn V rocket. There it remained through Earth parking orbit and the trans-lunar injection (TLI) rocket burn to send the craft toward the Moon.

在发射时,登月舱就在指挥与服务模块(CSM)的正下方,着陆器折叠,位于连接至土星V火箭第三级S-IVB的航天器到LM适配器( Spacecraft-to-LM adapter ,SLA)内。 从地球集合轨道到月球交汇( trans-lunar injection ,TLI)点之间它将一直等待,然后火箭发射,将登月舱送向月球。

Soon after TLI, the SLA opened; the CSM separated, turned around, came back to dock with the lunar module, and extracted it from the S-IVB. During the flight to the Moon, the docking hatches were opened and the lunar module pilot entered the LM to temporarily power up and test all systems except propulsion. The lunar module pilot performed the role of an engineering officer, monitoring the systems of both spacecraft.

到达TLI后不久,SLA正式工作; CSM与LM分离,前者一直绕着月转圈,然后等待与月球舱对接,并让在月球舱上的宇航员S-IVB回到CSM出来。【??】在飞往月球的过程中,对接舱口被打开,登月舱飞行员进入了LM,启动LM并测试除推进力以外的所有系统。 月球舱飞行员扮演了工程官的角色,监视着两个航天器的系统。

After achieving a lunar parking orbit, the commander and LM pilot entered and powered up the LM, replaced the hatches and docking equipment, unfolded and locked its landing legs, and separated from the CSM, flying independently. The commander operated the flight controls and engine throttle, while the lunar module pilot operated other spacecraft systems and kept the commander informed about systems status and navigational information. After the command module pilot visually inspected the landing gear, the LM was withdrawn to a safe distance, then rotated until the descent engine was pointed forward into the direction of travel. A 30-second descent orbit insertion burn was performed to reduce speed and drop the LM’s perilune to within about 50,000 feet (15 km) of the surface,[4] about 260 nautical miles (480 km) uprange of the landing site.

到达月球停泊轨道后,指挥官和LM飞行员进入LM并启动,更换掉舱口和对接设备,展开并锁定其着陆腿,并与CSM分开,独立飞行。 指挥官操作飞行控制和发动机油门,而登月舱驾驶员操纵其他航天器系统,并向指挥官通报系统状态和导航信息。 在指令模块飞行员目视检查起落架之后,LM将离开到安全距离,然后旋转直到LM下部发动机指向行驶方向。 然后是30秒的下降轨道交叉燃烧,以降低速度并将LM的垂降降落到距地面约50,000英尺(15公里)[4]着陆点上空约260海里的地方(480 km)。

Eagle, the lunar module ascent stage of Apollo 11, in orbit above the Moon. Earth is visible in the distance. Photograph by Michael Collins.

鹰,阿波罗11号登月舱的上面部分,在月球上方的轨道上。 地球在远处可见。 迈克尔·柯林斯(Michael Collins)摄影。

At this point, the engine was started again to begin powered descent. During this time, the crew flew on their backs, depending on the computer to slow the craft’s forward and vertical velocity to near zero. Control was exercised with a combination of engine throttling and attitude thrusters, guided by the computer with the aid of landing radar. During braking, the LM descended to about 10,000 feet (3.0 km), then, in the final approach phase, down to about 700 feet (210 m). During final approach, the vehicle pitched over to a near-vertical position, allowing the crew to look forward and down to see the lunar surface for the first time.[5]


此时,发动机再次启动以开始减速下降。 在此期间,机组人员依靠计算机,以将飞船的垂直和水平速度减至接近零。 通过发动机节流和姿态推进器的组合来进行控制,并由计算机借助着陆雷达引导。 在制动过程中,LM下降到大约10,000英尺(3.0公里),然后在最后进场阶段下降到大约700英尺(210 m)。 在最后进近过程中,载具俯仰到接近垂直的位置,使机组人员向前和向下看可以立即看到月球表面。[5]

Astronauts flew Apollo spacecraft manually only during the lunar approach.[6] The final landing phase began about 2,000 feet (0.61 km) uprange of the targeted landing site. At this point, manual control was enabled for the commander, who had enough propellant to hover for up to two minutes to survey where the computer was taking the craft and make any necessary corrections. If necessary, landing could have been aborted at almost any time by jettisoning the descent stage and firing the ascent engine to climb back into orbit for an emergency return to the CSM.

LM上的宇航员仅在靠近月球表面期间手动飞行阿波罗号航天器。[6]最终的着陆阶段开始于目标着陆点大约2,000英尺(0.61 km)的范围。此时,指挥官启用了手动控制,有足够的推进剂可以悬停最多两分钟,以让计算机计算的结果并进行必要的更正。如有必要中止着陆,几乎可以在任何时候抛弃LM的下面部分,并发射上面一部分爬升回轨道,紧急返回CSM。

Finally, one or more of three 67.2-inch (1.71 m) probes extending from footpads on the legs of the lander touched the surface, activating the contact indicator light which signaled the commander to manually shut off the descent engine, allowing the LM to settle onto the surface. On touchdown, the probes would be bent as much as 180 degrees, or even break off. The original design used the probes on all four legs, but starting with the first landing (LM-5 on Apollo 11), the one at the ladder was removed out of concern that the bent probe after landing might puncture an astronaut’s suit as he descended or stepped off the ladder.

最后,从着陆器腿上的脚垫伸出的三个67.2英寸(1.71 m)探头中的一个或多个接触地面,激活了接触指示灯,指示指挥官手动关闭下面部分的引擎,使LM得以稳定。到表面上。触地时,探针将弯曲多达180度,甚至回折断。最初的设计在所有四个腿上都使用了探针,但是从第一次着陆(阿波罗11号上的LM-5)开始,由于担心着陆后弯曲的探针可能会刺穿走下阶梯的宇航员的衣服,所以将阶梯上的一个探针移除了。

The original extravehicular activity (EVA) plan, up through at least 1966, was for only one astronaut to leave the LM while the other remained inside “to maintain communications”.[7] Communications were eventually deemed to be reliable enough to allow both crew members to walk on the surface, leaving the spacecraft to be only remotely attended by Mission Control.

最初的舱外活动(EVA)计划至少持续到了1966年,这个计划要求只能有一名宇航员离开LM踏上月球表面,而另一名宇航员仍在待在舱内“保持通讯”。[7] 最终,通信设备被认为足够可靠,可以让两名宇航员都在地面上行走,而航天飞机只由任务控制部远程管理。

Beginning with Apollo 14, extra LM propellant was made available for the powered descent and landing, by using the CSM engine to achieve the 50,000-foot (15 km) perilune. After the spacecraft undocked, the CSM raised and circularized its orbit for the remainder of the mission.

从阿波罗14号开始,使用CSM发动机可以到达离月球表面50,000英尺(15公里)的范围,这样多出的LM推进剂可用于动力下降和着陆。 航天飞机脱离对接后,CSM升空并绕轨道飞行,以完成任务的其余部分。

When ready to leave the Moon, the LM’s ascent engine fired, leaving the descent stage on the Moon’s surface. After a few course correction burns, the LM rendezvoused with the CSM and docked to transfer the crew and rock samples. Having completed its job, the ascent stage was separated. The Apollo 10 ascent stage engine was fired until its fuel was used up, sending it past the Moon into a heliocentric orbit.[8][9] The Apollo 11 ascent stage was left in lunar orbit to eventually crash; all subsequent ascent stages (except for Apollo 13) were intentionally steered into the Moon to obtain readings from seismometers placed on the surface.

当准备离开月球时,LM的上部引擎开火,而LM的下部留在月球表面。 经过几次用于路线校正的燃料燃烧后,LM与CSM会合,停靠以转移船员和岩石样品。 完成工作后,LM的上面部分与CSM分离了并被抛弃。 例如阿波罗10号LM上部发动机点火,直到燃料用完,再将其通过月球送入日心轨道。[8] [9] 而阿波罗11号LM上部被送入月球轨道,最终坠毁; 所有随后LM上部(阿波罗13号除外)都被有意地操纵进入月球,以从放置在地面上的地震仪获得读数。

历史History

The lunar module (originally designated the lunar excursion module, known by the acronym LEM) was designed after NASA chose to reach the Moon via Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR) instead of the direct ascent or Earth Orbit Rendezvous (EOR) methods. Both direct ascent and EOR would have involved landing a much heavier, complete Apollo spacecraft on the Moon. Once the decision had been made to proceed using LOR, it became necessary to produce a separate craft capable of reaching the lunar surface and ascending back to lunar orbit.

登月模块(最初称为月球偏移模块,缩写为LEM)是在NASA选择使用月球轨道交会点(LOR),而不是从地球表面直接发射或地球轨道交会点(EOR)的方法到达月球设计的。 直接发射和EOR都需要让更重,更复杂阿波罗号航天器降落在月球上。 一旦决定继续使用LOR,就必须制造出能够到达月球表面并升回月球轨道的独立飞行器。

合同出租Contract letting

In July 1962, eleven firms were invited to submit proposals for the LEM. Nine companies responded in September, answering 20 questions posed by the NASA RFP in a 60-page limited technical proposal. Grumman Aircraft was awarded the contract two months later. Grumman had begun lunar orbit rendezvous studies in the late 1950s and again in 1961. The contract cost was expected to be around $350 million. There were initially four major subcontractors: Bell Aerosystems (ascent engine), Hamilton Standard (environmental control systems), Marquardt (reaction control system) and TRW’s Space Technology Laboratories (descent engine).[10]

1962年7月,11家公司被邀请为LEM提交提案。 9月份,有9家公司做出了回应,在60页有限的技术提案中,回答了NASA RFP提出的20个问题。 两个月后,格鲁曼飞机公司被授予合同。 格鲁曼公司在1950年代后期开始进行月球交会研究,并于1961年再次进行。合同成本预计约为3.5亿美元。 最初有四个主要分包商:贝尔航空系统(上升发动机),汉密尔顿标准(环境控制系统),马夸特(反应控制系统)和TRW的空间技术实验室(下降发动机)。[10]

The Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) was developed by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory; the Apollo Guidance Computer was manufactured by Raytheon (a similar guidance system was used in the command module). A backup navigation tool, the Abort Guidance System (AGS), was developed by TRW.

主要制导,导航和控制系统(PGNCS)由MIT仪器实验室开发; 雷神公司制造了阿波罗制导计算机(命令模块中使用了类似的制导系统)。 TRW开发了备用导航工具,中止制导系统(AGS)。

设计阶段Design phase

This 1963 model depicts the second LEM design, which gave rise to informal references as “the bug”.


The Apollo Lunar Module was chiefly designed by Grumman aerospace engineer Thomas J. Kelly.[11] The first LEM design looked like a smaller version of the Apollo command and service module (a cone-shaped cabin atop a cylindrical propulsion section) with folding legs. The second design invoked the idea of a helicopter cockpit with large curved windows and seats, to improve the astronauts’ visibility for hover and landing. This also included a second, forward docking port, allowing the LEM crew to take an active role in docking with the CSM.

阿波罗登月舱主要由格鲁曼航空工程师托马斯·凯利(Thomas J. Kelly)设计。[11] LEM的第一个设计看起来像是Apollo命令和服务模块(圆柱形推进部分顶部的圆锥形机舱)的可折叠腿的缩小版本。 第二个设计引用了带有大的弧形窗户和座椅的直升机驾驶舱的想法,以扩大宇航员在悬停和着陆时的视野。 这还包括第二个向前对接端口,让LEM机组人员可以在与CSM对接中也能发挥作用。

As the program continued, there were numerous redesigns to save weight, improve safety, and fix problems. First to go were the heavy cockpit windows and the seats; the astronauts would stand while flying the LEM, supported by a cable and pulley system, with smaller triangular windows giving them sufficient visibility of the landing site. Later, the redundant forward docking port was removed, which meant the Command Pilot gave up active control of the docking to the Command Module Pilot; he could still see the approaching CSM through a small overhead window. Egress while wearing bulky Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) spacesuits was eased by a simpler forward hatch (32 x 32 inches).

随着计划的继续,进行了许多重新设计以减轻重量,提高安全性并解决问题。 首先要去的是沉重的驾驶舱窗户和座位。 在由电缆和滑轮系统支撑的LEM飞行期间,较小的三角形窗户会让战力的宇航员能够充分观察到着陆点。 后来,冗余的向前对接端口被移除,这意味着LM上的指挥员放弃了对对接至指令模块的主动控制。 他仍然可以通过一个小的窗口看到正在接近的CSM。 身穿笨重的舱外活动(EVA)太空服时的出口因较简单的前舱口(32 x 32英寸)而得到缓解。【??】

The configuration was frozen in April 1963, when the ascent and descent engine designs were decided. In addition to Rocketdyne, a parallel program for the descent engine was ordered from Space Technology Laboratories (TRW) in July 1963, and by January 1965 the Rocketdyne contract was canceled.

该配置在1963年4月冻结,当时已经决定了LM上部和和下部发动机的设计。 然后是Rocketdyne,1963年7月,太空技术实验室(TRW)还订购了下部发动机的并行程序,到1965年1月,Rocketdyne合同被取消。

Power was initially to be produced by fuel cells built by Pratt and Whitney similar to the CSM, but in March 1965 these were discarded in favor of an all-battery design.[12]

最初由普拉特和惠特尼制造的类似于CSM的燃料电池来产生动力,但在1965年3月,这些燃料电池被弃用,转而采用全电池设计。[12]

The initial design had three landing legs, the lightest possible configuration. But as any particular leg would have to carry the weight of the vehicle if it landed at a significant angle, this was also the least stable configuration if one of the legs were damaged during landing. The next landing gear design iteration had five legs and was the most stable configuration for landing on an unknown terrain. That configuration, however, was too heavy and the designers compromised on four landing legs.[13]

最初的设计有三个着陆脚,这是可能的最轻的配置。 但是如果以某个特定的角度降落,那么其中一个脚将承担整个登月舱的重量,所以这也是最不稳定的配置。 接下来的起落架设计为有5条腿,是在未知地形上着陆的最稳定配置。 但是,这种配置太重了,设计者在两者之间做出了妥协,设计了4个着陆脚。[13]

In June 1966, the name was changed to lunar module (LM), eliminating the word “excursion”.[14][15] According to George Low, Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, this was because NASA was afraid that the word “excursion” might lend a frivolous note to Apollo.[16] After the name change from “LEM” to “LM”, the pronunciation of the abbreviation did not change, as the habit became ingrained among engineers, the astronauts, and the media to universally pronounce “LM” as “lem” which is easier than saying the letters individually.

1966年6月,名称改为月球舱(LM),删掉了“excursion”一词。[14] [15] 据阿波罗太空船计划办公室经理乔治·洛(George Low)称,这是因为美国国家航空航天局(NASA)担心“excursion”一词会给阿波罗带来轻浮的印象。[16] 名称从“ LEM”更改为“ LM”后,缩写的发音没有改变,因为这种习惯在工程师,宇航员和媒体中根深蒂固,普遍将“ LM”发音为“ lem”,这比单独说出两个字母“L”和‘M’要容易’。

宇航员训练Astronaut training

Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) during a test flight

试飞期间的月球着陆研究飞行器(LLRV)


To allow astronauts to learn lunar landing techniques, NASA contracted Bell Aerosystems in 1964 to build the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV), which used a gimbal-mounted vertical jet engine to counter five-sixths of its weight to simulate the Moon’s gravity, in addition to its own hydrogen peroxide thrusters to simulate the LM’s descent engine and attitude control. Successful testing of two LLRV prototypes at the Dryden Flight Research Center led in 1966 to three production Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV) which along with the LLRV’s were used to train the astronauts at the Houston Manned Spacecraft Center. This aircraft proved fairly dangerous to fly, as three of the five were destroyed in crashes. It was equipped with a rocket-powered ejection seat, so in each case the pilot survived, including the first man to walk on the Moon, Neil Armstrong.[17]

为了让宇航员学习登月技术,美国宇航局于1964年与Bell Aerosystems签订了合同,制造了“登月着陆研究飞行器”(LLRV),该装置使用安装在云台上的垂直喷气发动机抵消了六分之五的重量来模拟月球的重力。 除了自己的过氧化氢推进器外,还可以模拟LM的下降发动机和姿态控制。 1966年,在Dryden飞行研究中心成功测试了两个LLRV原型,然后生产了三架月球着陆训练车(LLTV),它们与LLRV一起用于在休斯敦载人航天器中心训练宇航员。 这中登月着陆研究飞行器被证明相当危险飞行,因为五架飞机中有三架在坠机中被摧毁。 它配备了火箭弹弹射座椅,因此在每种情况下,飞行员都得以幸存,其中包括第一位登上月球的人尼尔·阿姆斯特朗。[17]

飞行技术的发展Development flights

The Apollo 6 Lunar Module Test Article (LTA-2R) shortly before being mated with the SLA

LM-1 was built to make the first uncrewed flight for propulsion systems testing, launched into low Earth orbit atop a Saturn IB. This was originally planned for April 1967, to be followed by the first crewed flight later that year. But the LM’s development problems had been underestimated, and LM-1’s flight was delayed until January 22, 1968, as Apollo 5. At that time, LM-2 was held in reserve in case the LM-1 flight failed, which did not happen.

LM-1是为进行推进系统测试而进行的第一次无人飞行,被装载在在土星IB上并发射到近地轨道的。 这最初计划于1967年4月进行,随后在当年晚些时候进行了首次载人飞行。 但是,LM的问题被低估了,LM-1的飞行被推迟到1968年1月22日,即阿波罗5号。当时,LM-2被保留在备用状态,以防LM-1飞行失败,这种情况并没有发生 。

LM-3 now became the first crewed LM, again to be flown in low Earth orbit to test all the systems, and practice the separation, rendezvous, and docking planned for Apollo 8 in December 1968. But again, last-minute problems delayed its flight until Apollo 9 on March 3, 1969. A second, higher Earth orbit crewed practice flight had been planned to follow LM-3, but this was canceled to keep the program timeline on track.

LM-3现在成为第一架载人的LM,再次在低地球轨道飞行以测试所有系统,并计划于1968年12月练习与阿波罗8号的分离,交会和对接。但是,最后一刻发现的错误将这项计划推迟到直到1969年3月3日的阿波罗9号。原本计划进行第二次更高的地球轨道乘员飞行练习,让LM-3跟随,但是为了保持计划时间表而取消了该飞行。

Apollo 10 launched on May 18, 1969, using LM-4 for a “dress rehearsal” for the lunar landing, practicing all phases of the mission except powered descent initiation through takeoff. The LM descended to 47,400 feet (9.0 mi; 14.4 km) above the lunar surface, then jettisoned the descent stage and used its ascent engine to return to the CSM.[18]

阿波罗10号于1969年5月18日发射升空,使用LM-4进行月球着陆“彩排”,练习了任务的所有阶段,除了通过起飞进行动力下降启动外。 LM下降到月球表面以上47,400英尺(9.0英里; 14.4 km),然后抛弃下面阶段,并使用其上面的部分引擎返回到CSM。[18]

载人飞行Production flights

The first crewed lunar landing occurred on July 20, 1969, in the Apollo 11 LM Eagle. Four days later, the Apollo 11 crew in the Command Module Columbia splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, completing President John F. Kennedy’s goal: “…before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth”.

1969年7月20日,首次载人月球降落由阿波罗11号的LM鹰号完成。 四天后,“哥伦比亚”指挥舱的阿波罗11号机组人员在太平洋上安全降落,完成了约翰·肯尼迪总统的目标:“……在这十年结束之前,让人登上月球并安全地返回地球 ”。

This was followed by landings by Apollo 12 (Intrepid) and Apollo 14 (Antares).

随后是阿波罗12号(无畏号)和阿波罗14号(南极洲)登陆月球。

The Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle in lunar orbit

In April 1970, the Apollo 13 lunar module Aquarius played an unexpected role in saving the lives of the three astronauts after an oxygen tank in the service module ruptured, disabling the CSM. Aquarius served as a “lifeboat” for the astronauts during their return to Earth. Its descent stage engine was used to replace the crippled CSM Service Propulsion System engine, and its batteries supplied power for the trip home and recharged the Command Module’s batteries critical for reentry. The astronauts splashed down safely on April 17, 1970. The LM’s systems, designed to support two astronauts for 45 hours (including twice depressurization and repressurization causing loss of oxygen supply), actually stretched to support three astronauts for 90 hours (without depressurization and repressurization and loss of oxygen supply).

1970年4月,阿波罗13号登月舱水瓶座,在服务舱中的氧气罐破裂导致CSM瘫痪后,在挽救三名宇航员的生命方面发挥了意想不到的作用。 水瓶座在他们返回地球期间充当了宇航员的“救生艇”。 它的下部引擎用来临时代替残缺的CSM维修推进系统引擎,其电池为回家提供动力,并为在再入大气发挥重要作用的指挥舱电池充电。 宇航员们于1970年4月17日安全地降落。LM的系统设计为可支持两名宇航员45小时(包括两次降压和再加压所导致氧气供应的损失),这次实际上支持了三名宇航员90个小时(不进行降压和加压,所以没有氧气供应的损失)。

Hover times were maximized on the last four landing missions by using the Service Module engine to perform the initial descent orbit insertion burn 22 hours before the LM separated from the CSM, a practice begun on Apollo 14. This meant that the complete spacecraft, including the CSM, orbited the Moon with a 9.1-nautical-mile (16.9 km) perilune, enabling the LM to begin its powered descent from that altitude with a full load of descent stage propellant, leaving more reserve propellant for the final approach. The CSM would then raise its perilune back to the normal 60 nautical miles (110 km).[19]

从阿波罗14号开始的最后四个着陆任务中, LM在与CSM分开22个小时之前,通过使用服务模块引擎执行初始下降轨道插入燃烧,让悬停时间得以最大化。这意味整个航天器,包括 CSM会以9.1海里(16.9 km)的低高度在绕月球轨道飞行,使LM能够在飞向月球时,下部分推进剂的情况非常充足,为最终降落预留有更多的储备推进剂。 然后,CSM会从危险的低高度恢复到正常的60海里(110公里)。[19]

Extended J-class missions

Decreased clearance led to buckling of the extended descent engine nozzle on the landing of Apollo 15

The extended lunar module (ELM) used on the final three “J-class missions” — Apollo 15, 16, and 17 — was upgraded to land larger payloads and stay longer on the lunar surface. The descent engine thrust was increased by the addition of a 10-inch (250 mm) extension to the engine bell, and the descent propellant tanks were enlarged. A waste storage tank was added to the descent stage, with plumbing from the ascent stage. These upgrades allowed stays of up to 75 hours on the Moon.

最后三个“ J级任务”(阿波罗15号,16号和17号)使用的扩展月球舱(ELM)已升级,可降落更大的有效载荷并在月球表面停留更长的时间。 通过在发动机罩上增加10英寸(250毫米)的延伸来增加下降的发动机推力,并且下降的推进剂箱也得到了扩大。 在下部分增加了一个废料储存罐,用管道从上部分收集。 这些升级允许在月球上停留长达75小时。

The Lunar Roving Vehicle was folded up and carried in Quadrant 1 of the descent stage. It was deployed by the astronauts after landing, allowing them to explore large areas and return a greater variety of lunar samples.

登月车被折叠起来并由LM下部分的 Quadrant 1中运载。 它在降落后由宇航员部署,使他们能够探索大片区域并送回更多种类的月球样品。

技术参数Specifications

Weights given here are an average for the original pre-ELM spec vehicles. For specific weights for each mission, see the individual mission articles.

此处给出的重量是原始ELM的平均值。 有关每个任务的具体重量,请参阅各个任务文章。

上面部分Ascent stage

The ascent stage contained the crew cabin with instrument panels and flight controls. It contained its own Ascent Propulsion System (APS) engine and two hypergolic propellant tanks for return to lunar orbit and rendezvous with the Apollo command and service module. It also contained a Reaction Control System (RCS) for attitude and translation control, which consisted of sixteen hypergolic thrusters similar to those used on the Service Module, mounted in four quads, with their own propellant supply. A forward EVA hatch provided access to and from the lunar surface, while an overhead hatch and docking port provided access to and from the Command Module.

上面部分包括带有仪表板和飞行控制器的机舱。 它装有自己的上升推进系统(APS)发动机和两个高推力推进剂燃油箱,可返回月球轨道并与阿波罗指挥和服务模块会合。 它还包含一个用于姿态和平移控制的反作用控制系统(RCS),该系统由16个高推力推进器组成,与服务模块上使用的推力推力器相似,安装在四个方形中,并带有自己的推进剂供应。 向前的EVA舱口可以进出月球表面,而舱口和对接端口则可以进出命令模块。

Internal equipment included an environmental control (life support) system; a VHF communications system with two antennas for communication with the Command Module; a unified S-band system and steerable parabolic dish antenna for communication with Earth; an EVA antenna resembling a miniature parasol which relayed communications from antennas on the astronauts’ Portable Life Support Systems through the LM; primary (PGNCS) and backup (AGS) guidance and navigation systems; an Alignment Optical Telescope for visually determining the spacecraft orientation; rendezvous radar with its own steerable dish antenna; and an ice sublimation system for active thermal control. Electrical storage batteries, cooling water, and breathing oxygen were stored in amounts sufficient for a lunar surface stay of 48 hours initially, extended to 75 hours for the later missions.

内部设备包括环境控制(生命维持)系统; 具有两个与指令模块通信的天线的甚高频通信系统; 统一的S波段系统和可操纵的抛物面碟形天线,用于与地球通信; 类似于微型阳伞的EVA天线,通过LM中继宇航员的便携式生命支持系统上天线的通信; 主要(PGNCS)和备用(AGS)导航系统; 对准光学望远镜,用于从视觉上确定航天器的方向; 带有可转向碟形天线的交会雷达; 以及用于主动热控制的冰升华系统。 蓄电电池,冷却水和呼吸氧气的存储量足以使最初的月球表面停留48小时,在以后的任务中可延长至75小时。

登月舱乘员室

During rest periods while parked on the Moon, the crew would sleep on hammocks slung crosswise in the cabin.

在停放在月球上的休息期间,机组人员将睡在吊舱内横向悬挂的吊床上。

The return payload included the lunar rock and soil samples collected by the crew (as much as 238 pounds (108 kg) on Apollo 17), plus their exposed photographic film.

返回的有效载荷包括机组人员收集的月球岩石和土壤样本(在阿波罗17号上重达238磅(108千克)),以及其裸露岩石的摄影胶片。

  • Crew: 2
  • Crew cabin volume: 235 cu ft (6.7 m3)
  • Habitable volume: 160 cu ft (4.5 m3)
  • Crew compartment height: 7 ft 8 in (2.34 m)
  • Crew compartment depth: 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 3.5 in (2.832 m)
  • Width: 14 ft 1 in (4.29 m)
  • Depth: 13 ft 3 in (4.04 m)
  • Mass, dry: 4,740 lb (2,150 kg)
  • Mass, gross: 10,300 lb (4,700 kg)
  • Atmosphere: 100% oxygen at 4.8 psi (33 kPa)
  • Water: two 42.5 lb (19.3 kg) storage tanks
  • Coolant: 25 pounds (11 kg) of ethylene glycol / water solution
  • Thermal Control: one active water-ice sublimator
  • RCS propellant mass: 633 lb (287 kg)
  • RCS thrusters: sixteen x 100 lbf (440 N) in four quads
  • RCS propellants: Aerozine 50 fuel / nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) oxidizer
  • RCS specific impulse: 290 s (2.8 km/s)
  • APS propellant mass: 5,187 lb (2,353 kg) stored in two 36-cubic-foot (1.02 m3) propellant tanks
  • APS engine: Bell Aerospace LM Ascent Engine (LMAE) and Rocketdyne LMAE Injectors
  • APS thrust: 3,500 lbf (16,000 N)
  • APS propellants: Aerozine 50 fuel / nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer
  • APS pressurant: two 6.4 lb (2.9 kg) helium tanks at 3,000 pounds per square inch (21 MPa)
  • APS specific impulse: 311 s (3.05 km/s)
  • APS delta-V: 7,280 ft/s (2,220 m/s)
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio at liftoff: 2.124 (in lunar gravity)
  • Batteries: two 28–32 volt, 296 ampere-hour silver-zinc batteries; 125 lb (57 kg) each
  • Power: 28 V DC, 115 V 400 Hz AC
  • 船员:2
  • 乘员舱容积:6.7立方米(235立方英尺)
  • 可居住的体积:160立方英尺(4.5立方米)
  • 乘员室高度:7英尺8英寸(2.34 m)
  • 乘员室深度:3英尺6英寸(1.07 m)
  • 高度:2.832 m(9英尺3.5英寸)
  • 宽度:4.29 m(14 ft 1英寸)
  • 深度:4.04 m(13 ft 3英寸)
  • 干燥质量:4,740磅(2,150千克)
  • 总质量:10,300磅(4,700千克)
  • 大气:4.8 psi(33 kPa)时100%氧气
  • 水:两个42.5磅(19.3千克)储水箱
  • 冷却液:25磅(11千克)乙二醇/水溶液
  • 热控制:一台有源水冰升华器
  • RCS推进剂质量:633磅(287千克)
  • RCS推进器:四个方格中的十六个x 100 lbf(440 N)
  • RCS推进剂:Aerozine 50燃料/四氧化二氮(N2O4)氧化剂
  • RCS特定脉冲:290 s(2.8 km / s)
  • APS推进剂质量:5,187磅(2,353千克),存储在两个36立方英尺(1.02立方米)的推进剂罐中
  • APS发动机:贝尔宇航LM上升发动机(LMAE)和Rocketdyne LMAE喷油器
  • APS推力:3,500 lbf(16,000 N)
  • APS推进剂:Aerozine 50燃料/四氧化二氮氧化剂
  • APS加压剂:两个6.4磅(2.9千克)氦气罐,每平方英寸3,000磅(21 MPa)
  • APS特定脉冲:311 s(3.05 km / s)
  • APS delta-V:7,280 ft / s(2,220 m / s)
  • 升空时的推重比:2.124(月球重力)
  • 电池:两节28-32伏,296安时的银锌电池;每个125磅(57千克)
  • 电源:28 V DC,115 V 400 Hz AC

登月舱剖面

下面部分Descent stage

The descent stage’s primary job was to support a powered landing and surface extravehicular activity. When the excursion was over, it served as the launch pad for the ascent stage. Its octagonal shape was supported by four folding landing gear legs, and contained a throttleable Descent Propulsion System (DPS) engine with four hypergolic propellant tanks. A continuous-wave Doppler radar antenna was mounted by the engine heat shield on the bottom surface, to send altitude and rate of descent data to the guidance system and pilot display during the landing. Almost all external surfaces, except for the top, platform, ladder, descent engine and heat shield, were covered in amber, dark (reddish) amber, black, silver, and yellow aluminized Kapton foil blankets for thermal insulation.

下面部分的主要工作是支持机动着陆和水上飞机活动。 月球行走结束后,它充当了上面部分的发射台。 它的八角形由四个折叠起落架支腿支撑,并包含一个可节流的下降推进系统(DPS)发动机和四个高抛物面推进剂燃料箱。 发动机防热罩将连续波多普勒雷达天线安装在底面上,以便在着陆期间将高度和下降率数据发送至制导系统和飞行员显示器。 除了顶部,平台,梯子,下降的发动机和隔热罩以外,几乎所有的外表面都覆盖有琥珀色,深色(红色)琥珀色,黑色,银色和黄色镀铝的Kapton铝箔毯,用于隔热。

The number 1 (front) landing leg had an attached platform (informally known as the “porch”) in front of the ascent stage’s EVA hatch and a ladder, which the astronauts used to ascend and descend between the cabin to the surface. The footpad of each landing leg incorporated a 67-inch-long (1.7 m) surface contact sensor probe, which signaled the commander to switch off the descent engine. (The probe was omitted from the number 1 leg of every landing mission, to avoid a suit-puncture hazard to the astronauts, as the probes tended to break off and protrude upwards from the surface.)

1号(前)着陆腿在上升阶段的EVA舱口和梯子的前面有一个连接的平台(非正式地称为“门廊”),宇航员通常使用该梯子在机舱与地面之间升降。 每个着陆腿的脚垫都装有一个67英寸长(1.7 m)的表面接触传感器探头,该信号向指挥官发出信号,要求关闭下面部分的发动机。 (在每次着陆任务的第一条腿中都省略了探针,以免对宇航员造成穿刺危险,因为探针易于折断并从水平面向上突出。)

Equipment for the lunar exploration was carried in the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA), a drawer mounted on a hinged panel dropping out of the lefthand forward compartment. Besides the astronaut’s surface excavation tools and sample collection boxes, the MESA contained a television camera with a tripod; as the commander opened the MESA by pulling on a lanyard while descending the ladder, the camera was automatically activated to send the first pictures of the astronauts on the surface back to Earth. A United States flag for the astronauts to erect on the surface was carried in a container mounted on the ladder of each landing mission.

用于月球探测的设备装在模块化设备存放组件( Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly ,MESA)中,这是一个安装在铰接面板上的抽屉,该抽屉从左前车厢掉落。 除了宇航员的地面挖掘工具和样品收集箱外,MESA还装有带三脚架的电视摄像机; 当指挥官在下梯子时通过拉绳子打开MESA时,摄像机自动启动,将地面上的宇航员的第一张照片发送回地球。 在每次着陆任务的梯子上装有一个容器中,载有美国国旗,以供宇航员竖立在水面上。

The Early Apollo Surface Experiment Package (EASEP) (later the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP)), was carried in the opposite compartment behind the LM. An external compartment on the right front panel carried a deployable S-band antenna which, when opened looked like an inverted umbrella on a tripod. This was not used on the first landing due to time constraints, and the fact that acceptable communications were being received using the LM’s S-band antenna, but was used on Apollo 12 and 14. A hand-pulled Modular Equipment Transporter (MET), similar in appearance to a golf cart, was carried on Apollo 13 and 14 to facilitate carrying the tools and samples on extended moonwalks. On the extended missions (Apollo 15 and later), the antenna and TV camera were mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle, which was carried folded up and mounted on an external panel. Compartments also contained replacement Portable Life Support System (PLSS) batteries and extra lithium hydroxide canisters on the extended missions.

早期的阿波罗表面实验包( Early Apollo Surface Experiment Package ,EASEP)(后来的阿波罗月球表面实验包(  Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package ,ALSEP))被携带在LM后方的相对隔间中。右前面板的外部隔层装有一个可展开的S波段天线,当打开时,它看起来像三脚架上的倒伞。由于时间紧迫,第一次使用时并未使用该天线,并且使用LM的S波段天线接收到了可接受的通信,但在Apollo 12和14上使用了该信号。在外观上类似于高尔夫球车,是在阿波罗13号和14号上进行的,以利于在延长的人行道上携带工具和样品。在扩展任务(阿波罗15号及以后的任务)中,将天线和电视摄像机安装在“月球漫游车”上,将其折叠起来并安装在外部面板上。机舱还包含更换的便携式生命支持系统(PLSS)电池和扩展的任务中额外的氢氧化锂罐。

  • Height: 10 ft 7.2 in (3.231 m) (plus 5 ft 7.2 in (1.707 m) landing probes)
  • Width/depth, minus landing gear: 13 ft 10 in (4.22 m)
  • Width/depth, landing gear extended: 31.0 ft (9.4 m)
  • Mass including propellant: 22,783 lb (10,334 kg)
  • Water: one 151 kg (333 lb) storage tank
  • DPS propellant mass: 18,000 lb (8,200 kg) stored in four 67.3-cubic-foot (1.906 m3) propellant tanks
  • DPS engine: TRW LM descent engine (LMDE)[20]
  • DPS thrust: 10,125 lbf (45,040 N), throttleable between 10% and 60% of full thrust
  • DPS propellants: Aerozine 50 fuel / nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer
  • DPS pressurant: one 49-pound (22 kg) supercritical helium tank at 1,555 psi (10.72 MPa)
  • DPS specific impulse: 311 s (3,050 N⋅s/kg)
  • DPS delta-V: 8,100 ft/s (2,500 m/s)
  • Batteries: four (Apollo 9-14) or five (Apollo 15-17) 28–32 V, 415 A⋅h silver-zinc batteries; 135 lb (61 kg) each
  • 高度:3.231 m(10英尺7.2英寸)(加上1.707 m(5英尺7.2英寸)着陆探针)
  • 宽度/深度,减去起落架:13英尺10英寸(4.22 m)
  • 宽度/深度,起落架展开:9.4毫米(31.0英尺)
  • 包括推进剂在内的质量:22,783磅(10,334千克)
  • 水:一个151千克(333磅)的储水箱
  • DPS推进剂质量:18,000磅(8,200千克)存储在四个67.3立方英尺(1.906立方米)的推进剂罐中
  • DPS引擎:TRW LM下降引擎(LMDE)[20]
  • DPS推力:10,125 lbf(45,040 N),可在全推力的10%至60%之间调节
  • DPS推进剂:Aerozine 50燃料/四氧化二氮氧化剂
  • DPS加压剂:1个重达49磅(22千克)的超临界氦气罐,压力为1,555 psi(10.72 MPa)
  • DPS比冲量:311 s(3,050N⋅s/ kg)
  • DPS delta-V:8,100 ft / s(2,500 m / s)
  • 电池:四节(Apollo 9-14)或五节(Apollo 15-17)28–32 V,415 A·h银锌电池; 每个135磅(61公斤)

阿波罗11号50周年纪念币

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