为什么NASA的“太空中的女性”计划在1960年代初突然被关闭?Why was NASA’s Women in Space program abruptly shut down in the early 1960s?

【翻译自quora,@C Stuart Hardwick的回答】

I know a fair bit about this because I researched it for my award-winning Analog story, “For All Mankind” in which it featured prominently.

我对此颇有了解,因为我在我写的屡获殊荣的Analog故事《 For All Mankind》进行了研究,该故事在其中尤为重要。

Despite anything you may have seen to the contrary, there was never any such thing as a “women in space program” in the early days of the US space program, not under the auspices of NASA nor anywhere else, not in the way you mean.

尽管您看到的结果也许不同,但在美国太空计划的早期,从来没有任何“太空中的女性计划”之类的东西,在美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的主持下没有这个计划,在其他任何地方也没有这个计划,不是您所说的那样。

  • There was only ever a scientific study, and not by NASA.
  • There was never a selection process.
  • There were never any women astronaut candidates.
  • There was never any “Mercury 13” training for space till the whole thing was mysteriously cancelled.
  • 只有科学研究,而且不是NASA主持的。
  • 从来没有一个选择过程。
  • 从来没有任何女航天员候选人。
  • 直到整个活动被神秘地取消之前,从未进行过任何“ Mercury 13”太空培训。

The real history deserves to be remembered:

真实的历史值得记忆:

When NASA started the Mercury program, one of the first tasks was to select an initial group of astronauts. Launching people into space on brand new rockets was no mean feat, and no one really knew what effect the trip would have on the human mind and body. It didn’t take long to decide the astronauts of the day must be test pilots with experience in high-performance military jets. This would, after all, be a program of test flights to greater heights and speeds than any human had ever endured.

当NASA启动水星计划时,首要任务之一就是选择宇航员。 用崭新的火箭将人们送上太空绝非易事,而且没人真正知道这次旅行会对人的身心产生什么样的影响。 很快,就决定了今天的宇航员,必须是有高性能军用飞机经验的试飞员。 毕竟,这是在此之前没有人忍受过如此高的高度和速度的试飞计划。

That precluded any women astronauts.

那排除了所有女航天员的可能。

That all the astronaut candidates were men was not directly sexist—no women anywhere in the country had the requisite experience. No women were high-performance test pilots. That of course, was indeed partly due to sexism. Plenty of women had gone into aviation during WWII, but when the war was over, the interesting work went back to the returning men—and very few colleges would even admit women into an engineering or aviation program. That was profoundly sexist, but that was the way it was at the time. Women were never going to fly in the early space program, but if this moon shot thing went okay…

所有的宇航员候选人都是男性,但这不是由于性别歧视,在当时的美国来说,没有女性具有必要的经验。没有女人是高性能战机飞行员。当然,这确实部分是由于性别歧视。第二次世界大战期间,有很多女性进入航空领域,但是战争结束后,有趣的工作又回到了回归的男性身上,而且很少有大学甚至允许女性参加工程或航空项目。那是深深的性别歧视,但这就是当时的样子。女人永远不会在早期的太空计划中飞翔,但是如果这颗月球射击没事的话… 【?】

NASA administrators knew just who to call.

NASA管理员 向谁寻求帮助 。

Dr. Randy Lovelace had worked with the N.A.C.A. since its founding, and had pioneered the study of aeronautical medicine and the development of life support equipment for high altitude flight. In 1958, the newly chartered NASA made him the chair of its Special Advisory Committee on Life Sciences, and the next year, a group of aviation medicine experts at his Albuquerque clinic put 31 astronaut candidates through a week of medical exams to select the best of the best of the best, The Mercury Seven, America’s first class of astronauts.

Randy Lovelace博士自N.A.C.A. 成立以来就一直在那工作,他是航空医学研究和高空飞行生命支持设备开发的先驱。 1958年,新成立的美国国家航空航天局(NASA)任命他为生命科学特别咨询委员会主席,第二年,阿尔伯克基诊所的一组航空医学专家对31名宇航员候选人进行了为期一周的医学检查,以选择最优秀之中最优秀的,作为美国水星七号的宇航员,也是美国第一批宇航员。

But Lovelace understood these were not the only astronauts the country would be needing. If things went well, there was talk of space stations and lunar bases and a mission to Mars in the 1980s. That all would take a lot more than test pilots.

但是洛夫蕾斯了解到,美国还需要更多的宇航员。 如果一切顺利,就会有关于太空站和月球基地的讨论,以及1980年代对火星的访问。 这一切将比试飞员花费更多。

And he knew just who to call.

而他知道向谁寻求帮助。

If no women were military jet test pilots with engineering degrees in 1960, Jerrie Cobb was as close as you could get. She’d ferried Lend Lease military aircraft around the world during WWII, set a number of records, and in 1959 as a test pilot for Rockwell International, set the Absolute Altitude record of 37,010 feet in its Aero Commander business aircraft.

如果没有其他女性在1960年获得具有工程学学位的军用喷气机试验飞行员,那么杰里·科布(Jerrie Cobb)很可能成为宇航员。 她在第二次世界大战期间向世界各地运送Lend Lease军用飞机,创造了许多记录,并在1959年作为罗克韦尔国际公司的试飞员,在Aero Commander公务机上创造了37,010英尺的绝对海拔高度记录。

Lovelace asked her to submit to the same biomedical testing he’d devised for the Mercury astronauts, and found she did just as well as many of the men. You will sometimes see the claim that she out-performed all the men, but sorry, that’s no true.

拉夫蕾丝请她接受与为水星宇航员设计的相同的生物医学测试,结果发现她和许多男人一样出色。 有时候您会发现她的表现胜过所有男人,但对不起,那是不对的。

Lovelace added this to a report compiled for NASA, pointing out the women might have advantages in space—that among other things, they tend to be lighter, require less food and water, and use substantially less oxygen. None of that would matter in the short term, but for the longer missions to the planets…

Lovelace在为NASA编写的一份报告中补充了这一点,指出女性可能在太空方面具有优势-她们往往更轻,所需的食物和水更少,消耗的氧气也少得多。 在短期内,这些优势都不明显,但是对于更长的行星任务来说……

Lovelace gave a talk about this as a conference in Stockholm, and there came to the attention of Jacqueline Cochran, the storied (and wealthy) barnstormer who in 1958 at the age of 47, had broken the sound barrier in a borrowed Canadian fighter jet. Jackie agreed to fund Lovelace’s research into the fitness of women for spaceflight.

洛夫雷斯在斯德哥尔摩的一次会议上发表了有关这一话题的演讲,引起了杰奎琳·科克兰(Jacqueline Cochran)的注意,他是一位传奇人物(也很富有),身 barnstormer 手,1958年,他47岁,他用一架借来的加拿大战斗机突破了声障。 杰基同意资助洛芙蕾丝(Lovelace)进行关于女性是否适合太空飞行的研究。

Working mostly through the Ninety-Nine’s, a women aviator’s professional organization started by Amelia Earhart, Cochran and Cobb recruited another 24 women to submit to Lovelace’s tests.

由Amelia Earhart,Cochran和Cobb创立的女性飞行员专业组织,通的工作又招募了24名女性参加洛夫莱斯的测试。

Buoyed by the results, Lovelace received informal approval to commence a second round of tests using military flight training hardware at Langley field. Many of the women dropped out at this point, mostly due to other commitments, and Cobb took to calling the remaining group “The Mercury 13,” a play on “The Mercury 7”.

受到结果的鼓舞,洛夫莱斯获得了非正式批准,开始在兰利战场使用军事飞行训练硬件进行第二轮测试。 此时,许多女性退出了。由于其他承诺,科布开始将剩下的小组称为“水星13”,以“水星7”作为剧本。

Before this second round of tests could commence, however, the brass found out and pulled the plug. Was this due to sexism? Perhaps, but the simple fact is, Lovelace’s science project was not NASA business nor government business, and the facilities he wanted to use were needed to train the astronauts—of course the plug was pulled.

但是,在第二轮测试开始之前,事情被终止了。 这是由于性别歧视吗? 也许,但简单的事实是,洛夫莱斯的科学项目既不是NASA的业务,也不是政府的业务,而他想使用的设施是训练宇航员所必需的-当然得暂停了。

That’s it. Jerry Cobb stated over the years that she felt she’d been cheated. Some of the other woman have stated they thought she saw what she wanted to see. I’ve dug into the records from the time as best I can over the Internet, and the latter view seems to be the better substantiated claim.

就是这样。 多年来,杰里·科布(Jerry Cobb)表示她觉得自己被骗了。 其他一些女人说他们认为她看到了自己想看的东西。 从那时起,我就尽可能地通过Internet挖掘记录,而后一种观点似乎是更好的依据。

After the cancellation, Cobb went to the media and tried to enlist the public in having the project resurrected. She and Jane Hart got as far as a meeting with Vice President Johnson, who by all accounts expressed sympathy, then as soon as they were gone, scrolled a terse order “Let’s stop this now.”

取消后,科布前往媒体,试图向公众说明以重新开始该项目。她和简·哈特(Jane Hart)与约翰逊(Johnson)副总统举行了一次会议,所有人都表示同情,然后他们一离开,便说了一条简短的命令:“现在就停止。

It’s easy to see this as sexist—as any of many varieties of assholery—but let’s put it in perspective. The nation had just committed itself to a moon landing by the end of the decade—as a battle in a Cold War most saw as an existential threat. NASA and the nation were deep into planning to make it happen, with setbacks and overruns and challenges coming fast and furious.

很容易将其视为性别歧视者(与许多种混蛋一样),但让我们从另一个角度来看。 那个时候,美国致力于在月球着陆-作为冷战中的一场战斗,大多数人将其视为生存威胁。 美国国家航空航天局(NASA)和美国正全力以赴地计划实现这一目标,但挫折,超支和挑战却日趋激烈。

A privately-funded science program was one thing. Jerrie Cobb training alongside the men was quite another. Even if LBJ really was truly sympathetic to her plea, the nation could not afford the distraction—any distraction.

私人资助的科学计划是一回事。 杰里·科布(Jerrie Cobb)让那些女子与男子一起训练是另一回事。 即使LBJ真的很同情她的诉求,但这个国家也无法承受分心-任何分心。

And that’s a shame. It’s a shame we were in such a rush to get to the moon that we spent ourselves out of any follow on for the next half century. It’s a shame the only military jet Jerrie Cobb ever got to fly in was as a passenger. It’s a shame that most engineering schools didn’t even start admitting women until the 1960s.

真可惜。 真是太着急了,我们急于登上月球,以至于我们在接下来的半个世纪都没有花费任何时间来感其他的事。 真遗憾,杰里·科布(Jerrie Cobb)唯一能乘坐的军用飞机时是作为乘客的时候。 遗憾的是,大多数工科学校直到1960年代才开始招收女生。

But Jerrie and Jane and the others were not cheated of a shot at space—well, not by NASA and not by Randy Lovelace. If they were cheated, it was by an America that saw women as baby machines and beasts of domestic burden, an America in which women like my mother saw no opportunity at all except as hair dresser or phone operator or school teacher.

但是Jerrie和Jane以及其他人在太空并未受到欺骗-好吧,不是被NASA还是Randy Lovelace所欺骗。 如果他们被骗了,那就是一个美国将妇女视为婴儿机器和家庭负担的野兽;在美国,在我母亲那个年代,妇女除了理发师,电话接线员或学校老师外根本没有机会干其他事。

All these ladies bucked those limits, and though they were never realistically going to go into space, they sure inspired those who would come after them, and I hope, those yet to come. We don’t need to embellish the story with made-up government conspiracy. They and their story, are amazing enough.

所有这些女士都突破了这些限制,尽管她们没有真正地进入太空,但她们肯定会激励那些追随她们的人,而我希望,是那些即将来临的人。 我们不需要政府的阴谋来修饰故事。 她们和她们的故事,真是太神奇了。

[ Geraldyn M. Cobb March 5, 1931 – March 18, 2019]

Gene Nora Jessen, Wally Funk, Jerrie Cobb, Jerri Truhill, Sarah Rutley, Myrtle Cagle and Bernice Steadman, seven members of Lovelace’s study.

[NASA’s first group of women astronauts: Kathryn Sullivan, Shannon W. Lucid, Anna L. Fischer, Judith Resnik, Sally K. Ride and M. Rhea Seddon]

We still have a long way to go, and not just in space.

我们还有很长的路要走,而不仅仅是在太空是这样。


Addendum: While Jerry Cobb and her fellow test subjects were never candidates for space, the media noise she raised seems to have led directly to the launch of the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova. Tereshkova was one of a small group of female cosmonauts trained to go into space after an assistant to program directory Sergei Korolev saw something in the western press about woman in space and thought it important that the USSR launch a woman first to demonstrate the moral superiority of the Soviet system.

附录:尽管杰里·科布和她的测试对象从来都不是太空候选人,但她引起的媒体喧嚣,似乎直接导致了太空中的第一位女性瓦伦蒂娜·捷列什科娃的出现。 程序目录的助理谢尔盖·科罗廖夫(Sergei Korolev),在西方媒体中看到了有关太空中女性的某些信息之后,想到了捷列什科娃(Tereshkova)是一小群受过训练准备进入太空的女宇航员之一,并认为苏联首先让一名女性进入太空以展示苏联的道德优势很重要。

Unlike Jackie Cobb and the rest of “The Mercury 13” Tereshkova had no qualifications at all other than experience sky-diving. That was enough, however, as the early Soviet space program relied not on test pilots, but patriotic volunteers. Early Vostok space capsules needed (and tolerated) almost no input from the cosmonaut, but they did require skydiving skills—passengers had to bail out before landing.

与杰基·科布(Jackie Cobb)和“水星13”的其余部分不同,捷列什科娃(Tereshkova)除了会跳伞,根本没有资格。 但是,这已经足够了,因为早期的苏联太空计划不是依靠试飞员,而是依靠爱国志愿者。 早期的东方号太空舱几乎不需要(也没有时间让)宇航员的任何投入时间精力去学习什么,但他们确实需要跳伞技能-乘客必须在降落前离开随时有危险的太空舱。

Despite that, there are claims that Korolev was unhappy with her performance and vowed never to launch another women. And true enough, the USSR didn’t launch another woman until 1982—this time to stay ahead of the first actual class of female astronauts.

尽管如此,有人认为科罗廖夫对他自己的表现不满意,并发誓永远不会再招募其他女性。 确实,苏联直到1982年才让另一名女性进入太空,这次是在第一位实际的女宇航员之前。

So Jack Cobb’s PR efforts spurred the first woman into space, and her mission amplified the impression that women ought to be in space, which helped open the door to make it happen. Perception is reality is perception.

因此,杰克·科布(Jack Cobb)的公关工作促成了第一位女性进入太空,她的任务确保了人们认为女性应该进入太空的看法,这为实现这一目标打开了大门。 感知到的就是现实,现实就是感知到的。

【评论区】

@ Stepan Serdyuk

Thank you for your informative answer, although this particular bit bugged me:

‘That was enough, however, as the early Soviet space program relied not on test pilots, but patriotic volunteers.’
According to Wikipedia, you are accurate about Tereshkova. But:

Gagarin was a military pilot.
Titov was a pilot.
Nikolaev.
Popovich.
Bykovsky.

All trained pilots.

感谢您提供的翔实答案,但还有这一点有些困扰我:

“不过,这已经足够了,因为早期的苏联太空计划不依靠试飞员,而是依靠爱国志愿者。”
根据Wikipedia的说法,Tereshkova的情况确实如您所说。 但:

加加林是一名军事飞行员。
季托夫是一名飞行员。
尼古拉耶夫,波波维奇, 比科夫斯基。都是训练有素的飞行员。

@答主:

None of those men were test pilots. Being pilots meant they were already conditioned to enduring G-forces and vestibular disruption, etc. But Russian officials didn’t feel they needed experiences test pilots to develop and test a new spacecraft—because at least at that early stage, they saw the capsule as just that, a capsule carrying payload atop a modified ICBM. In fact, the few maneuvering controls Gagarin had were locked out, and he needed a code in order to release them. We know this because years later, a member of the ground crew revealed that they had violated orders, written the code on a slip of paper, and slipped it to him in case he needed it.

这些人都不是试飞员。 他们是飞行员,意味着他们已经能够承受重力和前庭的破坏,等等。但是俄罗斯官员并不认为他们需要经验丰富的试飞员,来开发和测试新的航天器-至少在早期,他们觉得太空舱就是那样,一个在ICBM顶部载有有效载荷的太空舱。 实际上,加加林飞行时,少数几个操纵控件已经被锁定,他需要密码才能使用它们。 我们之所以知道这一点,是因为几年后,地勤人员透露他们违反了命令,即将密码写在纸条上,并在需要时将其交给他。

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