宇航员在太空上看到了什么有关地球的负面景象？What negative things do astronauts see looking at Earth from space?
Terrorist Attacks (e.g. The World Trade Center burning)
Hurricanes Striking Your Home and Family (e.g. Hurricane Ike)
Flooding (e.g. Biloxi after Hurricane Katrina)
Forest Fires (e.g. Montana)
Slash-and-burn Forest Clearing (e.g. Brazil)
Volcanoes Erupting (e.g. Mt. Etna)
Oil Spills (e.g. Deepwater Horizon off the coast of Louisiana)
Mining (e.g. Utah)
在国际空间站工作时，宇航员们是如何娱乐的呢？How do astronauts entertain themselves while working in the space station?
Those of us on the ground like to remove that concern by keeping them busy working. But, the docs say we have to give them some free time.
The first thing astronauts usually mention is the simple act of looking out of the window. They have the greatest view on Earth, excuse me, off of Earth. They orbit the Earth once every ninety minutes, so there is always a new thing to look at. They talk about the colors and shapes, the lightning, the aurora, and just how beautiful Earth is. We train them on photography before their flight and many of them really take to it and downlink thousands of photos of the Earth.
宇航员通常提到的第一件事是从窗户向外看的简单动作。 他们在地球上拥有，哦，不对，是在地球外拥有最大的视野。 它们每九十分钟绕地球运行一次，因此总有新事物要看。 他们谈论颜色和形状，闪电，极光，以及地球有多美丽。 我们会在飞行前对他们进行摄影训练，其中许多人真的会照相并下行传送数千张地球照片。
The crew is away from family and friends for six months, so any means of contact – whether that be email, phone, or videocon, is a priority for their non-working hours.
Sometimes, talking to strangers is what they need. There is a Ham radio onboard ISS and anyone on the ground, with the right equipment and good timing, can talk to the crew.
Some astronauts have played chess with people on the ground, via ham radio or email.
Some of them do things like Don Pettit’s “Saturday morning science” in which he performed experiments for kids, videotaped them and put them on Youtube.
Music is important to many astronauts and cosmonauts. Statistically, an astronaut is more likely than the average person to be proficient at playing an instrument. There are a few instruments on board and the occasional jam session will happen.
音乐对许多宇航员和宇航员都很重要。 从统计学上讲，宇航员比普通人更会弹奏乐器。 船上有一些乐器，偶尔会弹奏不了。
It’s not unknown for the odd Canadian astronaut to make a music video.
During the day, the astronauts are often working by themselves, performing experiments or maintenance. The U.S. and Russian segments are pretty segmented, so a group dinner is an opportunity for the crew to talk to each other and bond.
Although we schedule exercise for them, everyday, some of them take it a bit further and run the New York or London marathons in realtime.
Reading is a common pastime.
Sometimes the ground will be nice and uplink a sporting event, like the World Cup.
Recently, we sent the crew a projector and screen, so that they can watch a movie together. And maybe give themselves nightmares if they watch a certain movie that has the ISS getting destroyed by space debris.
The odd soccer game has broken out…
And, very rarely, they dress up in gorilla suits and terrorize their crewmates.
喷涂卫星和火箭为什么很重要？为什么要使用那些颜色呢？Why is painting satellites and rockets important and why the specific color?
Originally, rockets were combinations of white and black to provide the greatest contrast so that roll could be detected via tracking cameras. But, as propellants changed and cryogenic fuels became more common, white became the norm for its thermal properties. Darker colors resulted in excessive heating on the launch pad. The thermal choice extends to on-orbit vehicles like the Space Shuttle.
最初，火箭是白色和黑色的组合，以提供最大的对比度，因此可以通过跟踪摄像机检测到侧倾。 但是，随着推进剂的变化和低温燃料的普及，白色已成为其热性能的标准。 深色会导致发射台过热。 这种颜色选择延伸到了在轨飞行器，例如航天飞机。
There are a few exceptions. The Delta II is Delta Blue in color. The Space Shuttle used an orange fuel tank. Orange was the natural color of the insulating foam. For the first flights they painted it white, but they soon stopped because the paint added unnecessary weight that cost fuel.
有一些例外。 Delta II颜色为三角洲蓝。 航天飞机使用了橙色的燃料箱。 橙色是绝缘泡沫的天然颜色。 在第一次飞行中，他们将其涂成白色，但很快就停止了，因为这种涂料增加了不必要的重量，从而增加了燃料消耗。
Often, when you see an on-orbit spacecraft that is white, it is not paint, but beta cloth or tile that is covering the surface, again for optimal thermal properties.
White areas on a spacecraft are usually areas that need to reflect the Sun’s heat, while black areas are usually areas that need to emit internal heat.
对于宇航员来说，在太空中时，心脏为了运输血液是不是得更加费劲？For astronauts, when in space, does the heart have to work harder to pump blood through the human body?
No, to the contrary, the heart doesn’t have to work as hard as it does on Earth, because there isn’t a constant gravitational pull that the heart has to overcome.
Upon first reaching space, the heart swells a little as the body reacts to the changes in body fluids, but after a few days it acclimatizes and having to no longer work as hard, it starts to shrink.
To counteract this, the astronauts and cosmonauts follow intense exercise regimes to force their hearts to work hard.
ISS中是否有任何反作用轮来补偿Canadarm的运动（尤其是像Dragon这样的有效载荷）？Are there any reaction wheels in the ISS to compensate Canadarm movements (especially with payloads like Dragon)?
Yes. Within the Z1 Truss, there are four large steel wheels, each held within two gimbals. These massive (220 lbs (100 kg)) wheels spin at 6600 revolutions per minute.
是。 在Z1桁架内部，有四个大型钢轮，每个钢轮固定在两个万向架内。 这些巨大的车轮（220磅（100千克））以每分钟6600转的速度旋转。
The GNC MDM (the ISS computer responsible for motion control and navigation) software monitors the vehicle attitude rates about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes and calculates how reorienting those four wheels using their gimbals can negate the vehicle rates.
GNC MDM（ the ISS computer responsible for motion control and navigation ，负责运动控制和导航的ISS计算机）软件监视有关偏航角，俯仰角和横滚轴的载具姿态速率，并计算使用其万向节重新调整这四个反作用轮的方向，从而可以抵消载具的速率。
Here’s a picture of one of those CMGs (Control Moment Gyroscopes):
这是其中一个CMG（ Control Moment Gyroscopes，控制力矩陀螺仪）的图片：