如果从月球上拍一张地球的照片,为什么看不到阳光?If we took a picture of Earth from the Moon, why can’t we see sunlight anywhere?

@quora问题细节补充机器人:

(Cognitive Dissonance Warning) There is clearly a lot wrong here – I can’t even note it all. The tinting of light on the Moon (and Earth) looks nowhere near natural sunlight, and the “Moon” surface looks artificial. We can see the moon and stars on Earth, but not the inverse? Illogical.

(认知错误警告)这里显然有很多错误-我甚至没法全部指出来。 月球(和地球)上的光看起来远不及自然光,“月球”表面看起来像是人造的。 我们可以从地球上看到月亮和星星,但在月球上却只看到地球,没有星星?不合逻辑。

【原问题的细节描述应该是quora问题细节机器人补充的那样,但后来问题细节被提问者删除,又被机器人补充回来,加上( Cognitive Dissonance Warning )。所以仅在问题的评论区就有很多Quora用户试图纠正提问者狂妄自大的想法,各位答主对提问者的问题的细节描述也很不满。】

@ C Stuart Hardwick 的回答

For a start, the image you have posted is not a photograph, but a still from a CGI recreation created by NASA Goddard in 2013 using measurements taken from Apollo photography and mission telemetry, combined with hi resolution LRO data. More on that can be found at Historic ‘Earthrise’ Re-Created For 45th Apollo 8 Anniversary | Video.

首先,您发布的图像不是照片,而是NASA Goddard在2013年使用Apollo摄影和任务遥测获得的测量结果与高分辨率LRO数据相结合的CGI活动的静止图像。 有关更多信息,请参见为第45届阿波罗8周年重新创建的历史性“地球崛起” | 视频

By itself, the image looks pretty good, but if you watch the video and look at the CSM simulation, you’ll see the lighting isn’t exactly photorealistic—nor was it meant to be.

就其本身而言,图像看起来还不错,但是如果您观看视频并查看指令与服务舱的模拟,您会发现照明并非完全像照片一样真实,并非如此。

Here is a good scan of the image (AS08-14-2383) captured in 1968, in the correct orientation (for display to the public, it’s often been rotated clockwise to match the “earthrise” name, but in fact, doing so places Earth’s north pole to the right, not that that particularly matters.)

这是对1968年捕获的图像(AS08-14-2383)的正确方向的正确扫描(为了向公众显示,通常将它按顺时针方向旋转90度,以匹配“地球升起”的名称,这样虽然会把地球的北极放到右侧,但并不是什么大问题。)

But to your questions:

Q: If we took a picture of Earth from the Moon, why can’t we see sunlight anywhere?

In this image, the sun is to the left. If you can’t see sunlight anywhere, you might consider applying to get a service animal.

在此图像中,太阳位于左侧。 如果您在任何地方都看不到阳光,则可以考虑申请获得服务性动物。【??】

Q: The tinting of light on the Moon (and Earth) looks nowhere near natural sunlight

问:月球(和地球)上的光的色彩看起来远不及自然阳光

The color in all photographs, of all types, is balanced to fit some human’s idea of what it ought to look like. Cameras are not human eyes, and do not capture images the same way as human eyes. Color balance and exposure is always a trade-off. Indeed, I have seen scans of this frame (all the frames on this magazine, in fact) that were positively green.

所有类型的所有照片中的颜色都经过了调整,以匹配人类认为它看起来应该是个什么样的想法。 相机不是人眼,并且不能以与人眼相同的方式捕获图像。 色彩平衡和曝光始终需要权衡。 确实,我已经看到该框架(实际上是杂志上的所有框架)的扫描都是绿色的。

Anyone who knows even a little about film processing knows that it is an art, not a science, and that the color balance is a result of the complex interplay of the type of film stock, its condition, the temperature of the processing baths, the exact duration of processing, etc.

所有了解胶片冲洗的人都知道这是一门艺术,而不是一门科学,并且最终的色彩是胶片原材类型,其条件,冲洗液温度,冲洗温度, 确切的处理时间等相互作用的结果

Then when prints are made, all that applies again to the prints. Whether the green cast comes from the original or the scan, I don’t know, but in any event, photographs are always adjusted in development, they do not and cannot match the human eye.

然后,在进行打印时,上面的那些再次影响了打印的效果。 我不知道这是来自原始照片还是扫描的绿色照片,但无论如何,无论如何,照片总是在显影过程中进行调整,它们没有而且不可能是人类认为应该看到的那样。

If the color was balanced to highlight the blue Earth, that might explain what you think you see, but on the other hand, the moon has lots of color we can’t appreciate from down here, and in my experience looking at planets through telescopes, they always look insanely vibrant and toy-like.

如果颜色保持平衡以突出蓝色地球,这也许可以解释您的看法,但另一方面,月亮有很多颜色,从这张照片我们无法欣赏,而根据我的经验,通过望远镜观察行星 ,它们总是看起来疯狂而充满活力,像玩具。

Further, you don’t know what sunlight looks like. It isn’t yellow, it’s white. People think it’s yellow because we live at the bottom of an atmosphere that makes it appear a little yellow.

此外,您不知道阳光是什么样。 阳光不是黄色的,而是白色的。 人们认为它是黄色的,因为我们生活在一种使它看起来有点发黄的气氛的底部。

Also, further, you don’t know what the moon looks like, and therefore cannot say what natural sunlight should look like on the moon, having no other basis upon which to draw but the Apollo photographs themselves.

此外,您也不知道月亮是什么样子,因此无法说出自然光在月亮上应该是什么样子,除了阿波罗自己拍摄外,没有其他绘画依据。

Q: The “Moon” surface looks artificial.

问: 图中“月亮”看起来像是人造的

It does, a bit, doesn’t it? You were looking at CGI. It helps a lot to know what you’re looking at.

是的,有一点,不是吗? 您正在查看CGI。 了解您要查看的内容会很有帮助。

Even so, AS08-14-2383 was shot through a 250mm lens (moderately long telephoto). Telephoto lenses have the property of compressing the depth of field—making near and far objects appear closer together than they really are—and making rough surfaces look oddly toy-like. Add to that the complete lack of atmospheric scattering that is so ubiquitous on Earth, we take it for granted.

即便如此,AS08-14-2383还是通过250mm镜头(中长焦距)拍摄的。 远摄镜头具有压缩景深的特性,使远处和近处的物体看起来比实际距离更接近,并使粗糙的表面看起来像光滑的玩具。 再加上地球上无处不在的完全没有大气散射的情况,我们认为这是理所当然的。

Q: We can see the moon and stars on Earth, but not the inverse? Illogical.

问:我们在地球上可以看到月亮和星星,但在月球上只能看到地球,而看不到星星?不合逻辑。

No, it’s completely logical, you just don’t understand photography.

不,完全合乎逻辑,您只是不了解摄影。

The moon is mostly gray but highly reflective (approximately like the movie screens made at the time this photo was captured). We only see stars from Earth when we look up into a dark nighttime sky. Look up while pumping gas under a brightly lit gas station marquee, and you won’t see any stars. Look at the full moon and you won’t see any stars either—at least not near the moon (you might see Venus, though).

月亮大部分是灰色的,但反射率很高(近似于拍摄这张照片时代所生成的电影屏幕)。 只有在漆黑的夜空,我们才能在地球看到星星,而如果您在明亮的加油站加油时,您看不到任何星星。 满月时,您也不会看到任何星星-至少不在月亮附近(不过您可能会看到金星)。

Our eyes adjust to our surroundings. On a dark dark night with very clear skies, we can see the glow of the Milky Way. But we can’t see it from a brightly lit city square that causes our eyes to adapt to the glare.

我们的眼睛适应周围的环境。 在漆黑的夜晚,天空晴朗,我们可以看到银河系的光芒。 但是我们无法从明亮的城市广场看到它,否则我们的眼睛就能适应眩光了。

Cameras haven’t nearly the dynamic range of our eyes.

相机几乎没有我们眼睛的动态范围。

AS08-14-2383 was shot by a 70mm Hasselblad medium format camera set to a 1/250th of a second exposure and stopped all the way down to f/11 to get a decent shot of the Earth. If the moon were exposed as the human eye would see it (bright and white-looking), the Earth would be overexposed. If the exposure were bright enough to see the stars (maybe four seconds at f2) the moon would be overexposed and flare out the entire scene.

AS08-14-2383是由70毫米哈苏中画幅相机拍摄的,该相机设置为秒曝光的1/250秒,然后一直停到f / 11,以拍摄出像样的地球。 如果月亮以人眼所见的方式曝光(明亮且发白),那么地球将曝光过度。 如果曝光足够亮,可以看到恒星(在f2处可能是四秒钟),那么月亮将曝光过度,并闪到整个场景。

Anyone who knows even a little about film photography will attest that they did a fine job on this shot (which cannot be said of most of the shots on the same magazine.) Anyone who doesn’t know even a little about photography should refrain from rendering opinions about that which they know not, lest they make fools of themselves.

甚至对胶片摄影有一点了解的人,都会说这张照片上做得很好(而同一本杂志上的其他大多数照片就不一定)对摄影不甚了解的任何人都应该避免对他们不了解的事物发表意见,以免被别人当成傻瓜。

Yes, we went to the moon. Yes, Apollo 8 captured a special view of our island home. Instead of attacking what you don’t understand, you might humble yourself enough to actually increase your understanding.

是的,我们去了月球。 是的,阿波罗8号拍摄了我们地球的特殊景观。 与其攻击自己不了解的内容,不如让自己谦虚,这样才能真正学到知识。

Skepticism is an important tool, but it does no good unless you first understand how the world works well enough to recognize truth when you find it.

怀疑主义是一个重要的工具,但是除非您首先了解世界如何运转得足以识别真理,否则它就不会有好处。

@ Steven McQuinn的回答

You find something that you don’t understand, so you decide it must be fake. Not just fake, but a massive conspiracy of fakery. It doesn’t seem to occur to you that the cause of your lack of understanding is a lack of knowledge.

您发现一些您不了解的东西,因此您认为它一定是假的,而且在它背后还有阴谋。 您似乎并没有意识到你无法解释这个问题的原因是缺乏必要的知识。

I highly recommend a different approach when you encounter something you don’t understand: Do some research. Teach yourself the necessary science.

当您遇到不了解的内容时,我强烈建议您采用其他方法:做一些研究。 自学一些必要的科学。

Here are some sources to help you research the topic of moon photography by the Apollo astronauts.

这里有一些资料可以帮助您研究阿波罗宇航员进行的月球摄影主题。

Examination of Apollo Moon photographs – Wikipedia. This is a debunking site, putting to rest the claims that the photos were faked.

Examination of Apollo Moon photographs – Wikipedia. 这是揭穿声称照片是伪造谣言的网站。

The Best Space Images Ever Were Taken by Apollo Astronauts With Hasselblad Cameras. This is an article about how the customized Hasselblad cameras were used to take the pictures throughout the Apollo Project.

The Best Space Images Ever Were Taken by Apollo Astronauts With Hasselblad Cameras. 这是一篇有关如何在整个阿波罗计划中使用定制的哈苏相机拍摄照片的文章。

The Apollo 11 Hasselblad Cameras. This is an article about the camera development. Additionally, a more technical treatment using vintage pictures from Hasselblad. I was wondering what film they used, and found out that it was a special product with thin emulsion so that a lot of 70mm film could be put on each roll. I expect it was based on the Ektachrome of the time, as the color values have that look.

The Apollo 11 Hasselblad Cameras. 这是有关相机开发的文章,此外还可以对哈苏(Hasselblad)的老式图片进行技术处理。 我想知道他们使用什么胶卷,发现这是一种特殊的薄乳胶产品,因此每卷可以装很多70mm胶卷。 我希望它是基于当时的Ektachrome,因为颜色值具有外观。

And here is a Google image search of earth from the moon. Definitely some fake pictures in this assemblage, which either doctor the Apollo pictures or emulate them with CGI for non-educational purposes. The image below meets your requirements for an authentic look, starfield and all, although there are some problems with the physics. I smell a conspiracy, I think it is called advertising.

这是谷歌搜索里月球上看地球的图像。 此些图片中肯定有一些是假图片,这些假图片要么用于研究Apollo图片,要么用于非教育目的而使用CGI对其进行仿真。 尽管物理上存在一些问题,但下面的图像应该满足了您对外观,星空和所有图像的要求。 我闻到了伪造的味道,但我认为这不是某部门的阴谋,而是某公司的广告。

Image Source

Contrast the illustration above with this picture Michael Collins took from the Apollo 11 command module orbiting the moon, including the lunar lander, the moon and the Earth, in one frame. All of humanity, save for one person, the one who took the picture.

上面的插图与这张照片形成了对比,迈克尔·柯林斯从环绕月球的阿波罗11号命令模块拍下了这张照片。一张照片中就包含了月球登陆器,月球和地球。 全人类都在照片里,除了一个人,就是照相的人。

@ Robert Frost 的回答

One should never mistake their own ignorance of something for an indication there is something “wrong”. There is absolutely nothing wrong in that picture.

永远不要认为自己不知道的某件事就是“错”的。 那幅画绝对没有错。

The “sky” is black because there is no atmosphere on the Moon. It is atmosphere that scatters the Sun’s light and makes our sky blue.

“天空”是黑色的,因为月球上没有大气层。 正是大气散布了太阳的光并使我们的天空变成蓝色。

The Sun isn’t visible because it is clearly way above the Earth, in that picture.

在您的图中,太阳不可见,因为它明显位于地球上方。

The stars are not visible because of the limitations of the camera exposure. Here is the simplest test you can perform to demonstrate this idea. Go outside at night and look at a dark sky. You will see stars (if it isn’t cloudy). Now go somewhere with street lights and look up at the street light. I bet you will no longer see any stars in the sky. But they are there, aren’t they? If the camera exposure had been set to pick up the stars, both the Moon and the Earth would have been way too bright. Here’s an example:

由于照相机曝光的限制,看不到星星。 这是您可以用来证明这一想法的最简单的测试。 晚上出去外面,在没有灯光的漆黑天空下。 您会看到星星(如果不是多云的话)。 现在去有明亮路灯的地方,抬头看路灯。 我敢打赌,您将再也看不到天空中的星星。 但是星星一直在那里,不是吗? 如果将摄影机的曝光设置为可以看到星星的程度,那么月亮和地球都会过于亮了。 这是一个例子:

I took both photos with my phone. The one on the left resulted from me telling the camera to focus on the bright screen. The one on the right resulted from me telling the camera to focus on the dim Sheldon figure.

我用手机拍了两张照片。 左边的是我告诉相机将焦点对准明亮的屏幕的结果。 右边的一个是由于我告诉相机将焦点对准昏暗的Sheldon人物。

We didn’t go to the Moon to take pictures of the stars.

2 thoughts on “如果从月球上拍一张地球的照片,为什么看不到阳光?If we took a picture of Earth from the Moon, why can’t we see sunlight anywhere?”

  1. Service animal 那里带讽刺意味,是说“如果你看不到的话,就该考虑申请一下导盲犬了”(连这都看不到,你是瞎了吗)。

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