@Robert Frost 的回答
This answer is written assuming you are in the United States.
It depends on the size of the rocket. If the rocket & payload (including fuel) weighs more than 3.3 lbs, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.
If the rocket has more than 125 grams of fuel, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.
If a single motor rocket has more than 160 N-sec of impulse, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.
If multiple stages add up to more than 320 N-sec of impulse, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.
If the average thrust is more than 80 N, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.
If your home is near an airport, sporting facility, government building or other place of public assembly, you should check to see that it hasn’t been declared a no-fly zone (often happens for visiting politicians or sporting events as an anti-terrorism measure).
You should also check to see if your local community has any drought or fireworks restrictions.
For more details see FAA regulations FAR 101.
Well, all this is a bit of a killjoy, but expected. More interesting, however, is whether or not you can get away with it. What’s the chance of you getting caught (assuming you didn’t garner suspicion while building the thing).
好吧，这真无趣，但这在我的预料之中。 但是，更有趣的是您是否可以摆脱它。 被抓住的机会是多少（假设您在制造东西时没有引起怀疑）。
One could probably get away with the launch, in a remote area. But getting the materials would be tough. Some items, like the fuel, are only available to members of two authorized rocket clubs. The FAA waivers are not that hard to get. That hassle is much preferable to the hassle of the government coming down on you for an unauthorized launch.
在偏远地区发射后，您可能可以逃脱。 但是获取材料将很困难。 有些物品，例如燃料，仅提供给两个授权火箭俱乐部的成员使用。 FAA授权并非有多麻烦，至少要比未授权发射后政府找上门的麻烦好多了。
@ Tony Shi
All motors that can be flown without certification can be bought without certification. The H and above motors (and sparkys and stuff, because of the fire hazard) need certification, but they have over 160Ns of impulse anyways.
@ John Bartram 的回答
Other than the well-known space-faring nations, quite a few others either did, or do now launch rockets into ‘space’; these are Sounding rockets:
Above: Skylark rocket
As part of the studies undertaken at the RAE in early 1950s, a series of experimental vehicles were studied, among which the CTV5 Series 3 able to send a 45 kg payload to more than 150 km of altitude.
The British sounding rockets program was completed in early 1979 with a total of 266 Skylark launched. Since this date, Skylark launches are carried out by German and Swedish organizations within the framework of national programs or on behalf of the ESA. Today, only the TEXUS and MASER programs of microgravity experiments use this type of sounding rockets, whose manufacture is ended. There are still four Skylark remaining to be launched by German company DASA.英国的探空火箭计划于1979年初完成，共发射了266架云雀。 自此日期以来，云雀发射是由德国和瑞典组织在国家计划框架内或代表欧空局进行的。 如今，只有TEXUS和MASER的微重力实验程序才使用这种类型的探空火箭，其制造已经结束。 德国公司DASA仍将剩下四架云雀。
They can reach higher:
Certain sounding rockets, such as the Black Brant X and XII, have an apogee between 1,000 and 1,500 kilometres (620 and 930 mi); the maximum apogee of their class. Sounding rockets often use military surplus rocket motors. NASA routinely flies the Terrier Mk 70 boosted Improved Orion lifting 270–450-kilogram (600–990 lb) payloads into the exoatmospheric region between 100 and 200 kilometres (62 and 124 mi).某些探空火箭，例如Black Brant X和XII，其最高点在1,000至1,500公里（620至930英里）之间； 他们班上最大的远地点。 探空火箭经常使用军用剩余火箭发动机。 NASA例行地将梗犬Mk 70升空的改进型猎户座升空270至450千克（600至990磅）的有效载荷飞行到100至200公里（62至124英里）之间的大气层区域。
Sounding rockets are made of two main parts—a solid-fueled rocket motor on the bottom, and a payload of scientific instruments on the top. One reason that sounding rockets are low-cost is that they are often powered by surplus military rocket motors. Several rocket motors can be joined together and burned in stages to boost a payload to a higher altitude. The Orion is a single-stage rocket, which means it has only one motor.探空火箭由两个主要部分组成：底部为固体燃料火箭发动机，顶部为有效载荷的科学仪器。 探空火箭价格低廉的原因之一是，它们通常由多余的军用火箭发动机提供动力。 几个火箭发动机可以连接在一起并分阶段燃烧，以将有效载荷提升到更高的高度。 Orion是单级火箭，这意味着它只有一个马达。
They are launched by universities and weather services; some are made by private companies.
- Herschel Sounding Rocket
- Sounding Rockets
- Andøya Space Center
- Australian Space Research Institute
- Thirty Years of Sounding Rockets – Reflections Following a Reunion at ESRANGE
For advice on permissions, see the other answers here, to which I can add that anyone can launch anything from the sea, outside territorial limits, and there are plenty of very poor nations which would probably allow you to launch from there, for a small sum (and so get their ‘own’ space program for nothing). In other words, money speaks volumes.
How much do they cost and what sort of launch equipment do you need?I have this wonderful vision of setting up a covert launching facility deep in the Malaysian jungle and trying to hit North Korea with them….
If you google “Herschel Sounding Rocket” you will find much on this one rocket and its missions.
Sounding rockets are solid-fueled, so relatively easy to launch – and cost a heck of a lot less than any liquid-fueled rocket.
Some rigs are a lot bigger – Nasa goes for bigger is better.
【下面的回答来自于If I were able to launch a rocket to the moon from my backyard, what would legally stop me? Would the government shoot it down? Would I get arrested?】
In the U.S., you would definitely be in big trouble, but it really wouldn’t have anything to do with the fact that you’re going into space or trying to get to the moon. That part is perfectly legal.
You’d probably never get as far as launching the rocket. Trying to buy all the dangerous, toxic, explosive chemicals that such a rocket probably requires would be enough to attract the attention of officials. You’re not going to be able to “quietly” buy hundreds of thousands of gallons of high explosives and toxic chemicals.
您可能永远都不会发射火箭。 试图购买这种火箭可能需要的所有危险，有毒，易爆的化学物质，足以引起官员的注意。 您将无法“不为人知”地购买数十万加仑的高级炸药和有毒化学物质。
You’re not going to be able launch a rocket from your back yard that can carry a human to the moon. Take a look at a Saturn V and all the facilities that were required to launch it. This is just the tip of the iceberg (be sure to notice the cars in these photos for a sense of scale):
您将无法从后院发射可以载人到月球的火箭。 看一看Saturn V以及启动它所需的所有设施。 这只是冰山一角（一定要注意这些照片中的汽车，以了解其规模）：
You would need a huge amount of land. That’s perfectly possible, but I wouldn’t call a hundred square miles or so “my back yard”.
Launching a rocket requires all sorts of permits: environmental impact, airspace permissions, and most importantly, safety permits. Remember, rockets headed for space don’t just go up — they go sideways too, and they drop big chunks of hardware as they go …
You’re responsible for the safety of the people in the rocket’s flight path, and you have to prove to the authorities that you’re not going to endanger people.
With enough work, you can get all these permits and launch your moon rocket legally. On the other hand, if it just suddenly pops up, nobody is going to shoot it down, but when (if) you get back, you’re going to be in a ton of trouble.