从自己家里发射小火箭是否合法?我需要通知什么人吗?Is it legal to launch a small rocket into space from my house? Do I need to notify anyone?

@Robert Frost 的回答

This answer is written assuming you are in the United States.

此回答假设你在美国。

It depends on the size of the rocket.  If the rocket & payload (including fuel) weighs more than 3.3 lbs, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.

这取决于火箭的大小。 如果火箭和有效载荷(包括燃料)的重量超过3.3磅,则您需要获得美国联邦航空局(FAA)的授权才能发射火箭。

If the rocket has more than 125 grams of fuel, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.

如果火箭的燃料超过125克,则您需要获得美国联邦航空局(FAA)的授权才能发射火箭。

If a single motor rocket has more than 160 N-sec of impulse, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.

如果单个机动火箭具有超过160 牛-秒的比冲,您将需要获得美国联邦航空局(FAA)的授权才能发射火箭。

If multiple stages add up to more than 320 N-sec of impulse, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.

如果多级火箭加起来超过320牛秒的比冲,您将需要获得美国联邦航空局(FAA)的授权才能发射火箭。

If the average thrust is more than 80 N, you will need a waiver from the FAA to launch the rocket.

如果平均推力超过80 N,您将需要获得美国联邦航空局(FAA)的授权才能发射火箭。

If your home is near an airport, sporting facility, government building or other place of public assembly, you should check to see that it hasn’t been declared a no-fly zone (often happens for visiting politicians or sporting events as an anti-terrorism measure).

如果您的房屋在机场,体育设施,政府大楼或其他公共集会场所附近,则应检查并确认这里是不是被宣布为禁飞区(通常在政客拜访,体育赛事时或防范恐怖主义时会被宣布为禁飞区。)。

You should also check to see if your local community has any drought or fireworks restrictions.

您还应该检查一下当地社区是否有燃烧或烟火限制。

For more details see FAA regulations FAR 101.

有关更多详细信息,请参阅FAA法规FAR 101。

【评论区】

@ Scott Danzig

Well, all this is a bit of a killjoy, but expected.  More interesting, however, is whether or not you can get away with it.  What’s the chance of you getting caught (assuming you didn’t garner suspicion while building the thing).

好吧,这真无趣,但这在我的预料之中。 但是,更有趣的是您是否可以摆脱它。 被抓住的机会是多少(假设您在制造东西时没有引起怀疑)。

答主回答:

One could probably get away with the launch, in a remote area.  But getting the materials would be tough.  Some items, like the fuel, are only available to members of two authorized rocket clubs.  The FAA waivers are not that hard to get.  That hassle is much preferable to the hassle of the government coming down on you for an unauthorized launch.

在偏远地区发射后,您可能可以逃脱。 但是获取材料将很困难。 有些物品,例如燃料,仅提供给两个授权火箭俱乐部的成员使用。 FAA授权并非有多麻烦,至少要比未授权发射后政府找上门的麻烦好多了。

@ Tony Shi

All motors that can be flown without certification can be bought without certification. The H and above motors (and sparkys and stuff, because of the fire hazard) need certification, but they have over 160Ns of impulse anyways.

无需认证即可购买的所有可以运输的电动机。 H级及以上的电动机(由于起火危险,还有火花和杂物)需要认证,但无论如何它们都具有超过160Ns的比冲。

@ John Bartram 的回答

Other than the well-known space-faring nations, quite a few others either did, or do now launch rockets into ‘space’; these are Sounding rockets:

除了那些广为人知的航天国家以外,还有很多其他国家或组织已经或者现在确实在向“太空”发射火箭。这些是探空火箭火箭:

Above: Skylark rocket

As part of the studies undertaken at the RAE in early 1950s, a series of experimental vehicles were studied, among which the CTV5 Series 3 able to send a 45 kg payload to more than 150 km of altitude.

作为1950年代初期在RAE进行的研究的一部分,对一系列实验载具进行了研究,其中CTV5系列3能够将45千克有效载荷发送到150多公里的高度。

The British sounding rockets program was completed in early 1979 with a total of 266 Skylark launched. Since this date, Skylark launches are carried out by German and Swedish organizations within the framework of national programs or on behalf of the ESA. Today, only the TEXUS and MASER programs of microgravity experiments use this type of sounding rockets, whose manufacture is ended. There are still four Skylark remaining to be launched by German company DASA.

英国的探空火箭计划于1979年初完成,共发射了266架云雀。 自此日期以来,云雀发射是由德国和瑞典组织在国家计划框架内或代表欧空局进行的。 如今,只有TEXUS和MASER的微重力实验程序才使用这种类型的探空火箭,其制造已经结束。 德国公司DASA仍将剩下四架云雀。

They can reach higher:

它们可以到达很高的地方:

Certain sounding rockets, such as the Black Brant X and XII, have an apogee between 1,000 and 1,500 kilometres (620 and 930 mi); the maximum apogee of their class. Sounding rockets often use military surplus rocket motors.[3] NASA routinely flies the Terrier Mk 70 boosted Improved Orion lifting 270–450-kilogram (600–990 lb) payloads into the exoatmospheric region between 100 and 200 kilometres (62 and 124 mi).[4]

某些探空火箭,例如Black Brant X和XII,其最高点在1,000至1,500公里(620至930英里)之间; 他们班上最大的远地点。 探空火箭经常使用军用剩余火箭发动机。[3] NASA例行地将梗犬Mk 70升空的改进型猎户座升空270至450千克(600至990磅)的有效载荷飞行到100至200公里(62至124英里)之间的大气层区域。[4]

Orion Sounding Rocket:

Sounding rockets are made of two main parts—a solid-fueled rocket motor on the bottom, and a payload of scientific instruments on the top. One reason that sounding rockets are low-cost is that they are often powered by surplus military rocket motors. Several rocket motors can be joined together and burned in stages to boost a payload to a higher altitude. The Orion is a single-stage rocket, which means it has only one motor.

探空火箭由两个主要部分组成:底部为固体燃料火箭发动机,顶部为有效载荷的科学仪器。 探空火箭价格低廉的原因之一是,它们通常由多余的军用火箭发动机提供动力。 几个火箭发动机可以连接在一起并分阶段燃烧,以将有效载荷提升到更高的高度。 Orion是单级火箭,这意味着它只有一个马达。

They are launched by universities and weather services; some are made by private companies.

它们是由大学和气象部门发起的; 有些是由私人公司制造的。

Some links:

For advice on permissions, see the other answers here, to which I can add that anyone can launch anything from the sea, outside territorial limits, and there are plenty of very poor nations which would probably allow you to launch from there, for a small sum (and so get their ‘own’ space program for nothing). In other words, money speaks volumes.

有关权限的建议,请参见此处的其他答案,我还可以补充一点:任何人都可以在公海范围内从海上发射任何东西,并且有许多非常贫穷的国家,可能允许您从那里发射一定数量的火箭(并且你不要指望能从他们那里获得技术帮助) 换句话说,金钱就是力量。

【评论区】

@ Denis Oakley

How much do they cost and what sort of launch equipment do you need?I have this wonderful vision of setting up a covert launching facility deep in the Malaysian jungle and trying to hit North Korea with them….

它们的价格是多少,需要什么样的发射设备?我有一个奇妙的愿景,即在马来西亚丛林深处建立一个秘密的发射设施,并试图用它们袭击朝鲜……。

@ John Bartram

If you google “Herschel Sounding Rocket” you will find much on this one rocket and its missions.

如果您用Google搜索“ Herschel探空火箭”,您会在这枚火箭及其任务中发现很多东西。

Sounding rockets are solid-fueled, so relatively easy to launch – and cost a heck of a lot less than any liquid-fueled rocket.

探空火箭是固体燃料,因此相对容易发射-成本比任何液体燃料火箭低很多。

Some rigs are a lot bigger – Nasa goes for bigger is better.

有些火箭要大得多-美国航空航天局认为(Nasa)越大越好。

【下面的回答来自于If I were able to launch a rocket to the moon from my backyard, what would legally stop me? Would the government shoot it down? Would I get arrested?】

@Mark Shulmann的回答

In the U.S., you would definitely be in big trouble, but it really wouldn’t have anything to do with the fact that you’re going into space or trying to get to the moon. That part is perfectly legal.

在美国,您肯定会遇到大麻烦,但与您进入太空或试图登上月球这部分事实并没有任何关系。 这部分完全合法。

You’d probably never get as far as launching the rocket. Trying to buy all the dangerous, toxic, explosive chemicals that such a rocket probably requires would be enough to attract the attention of officials. You’re not going to be able to “quietly” buy hundreds of thousands of gallons of high explosives and toxic chemicals.

您可能永远都不会发射火箭。 试图购买这种火箭可能需要的所有危险,有毒,易爆的化学物质,足以引起官员的注意。 您将无法“不为人知”地购买数十万加仑的高级炸药和有毒化学物质。

You’re not going to be able launch a rocket from your back yard that can carry a human to the moon. Take a look at a Saturn V and all the facilities that were required to launch it. This is just the tip of the iceberg (be sure to notice the cars in these photos for a sense of scale):

您将无法从后院发射可以载人到月球的火箭。 看一看Saturn V以及启动它所需的所有设施。 这只是冰山一角(一定要注意这些照片中的汽车,以了解其规模):

You would need a huge amount of land. That’s perfectly possible, but I wouldn’t call a hundred square miles or so “my back yard”.

您将需要大量的土地。 你可能可以找到这样大的土地,但我不会说一百平方英里左右的土地是“我的后院”。

Launching a rocket requires all sorts of permits: environmental impact, airspace permissions, and most importantly, safety permits. Remember, rockets headed for space don’t just go up — they go sideways too, and they drop big chunks of hardware as they go …

发射火箭需要各种许可:环境影响,领空许可,最重要的是安全许可。 请记住,前往太空的火箭不仅会上升,而且也会向侧面倾斜,并且在移动时会掉落大量硬件……

You’re responsible for the safety of the people in the rocket’s flight path, and you have to prove to the authorities that you’re not going to endanger people.

您需要对火箭飞行途时别人的安全负责,并且必须向当局证明您不会危害到别人。

With enough work, you can get all these permits and launch your moon rocket legally. On the other hand, if it just suddenly pops up, nobody is going to shoot it down, but when (if) you get back, you’re going to be in a ton of trouble.

完成了这些之后,您可以获得所有这些许可证,并合法发射月球火箭。 另一方面,如果它突然发射,则没人会来得及把它击落,但是(如果)你回来的话,将会陷入很多麻烦中。

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