国际空间站是否有任何地区/区域限制? 美国宇航员能否自由访问俄罗斯段,反之亦然?Are there any regional/zonal restrictions on the ISS? Can U.S. astronauts freely visit the Russian segment and vice versa?

【翻译自quora,作者 Clayton C. Anderson 】

Great question! Regional/zonal restrictions on the International Space Station… they do exist in my opinion, but we must be careful as to how we categorize them.

好问题!我认为国际空间站上确实存在区域限制…但是我们在对它们进行归类时必须谨慎。

Having lived on board the ISS for five months in 2007, and then visiting for two weeks in 2010, I have first-hand experience as to how life is conducted “internationally” in low earth orbit. As the lone US astronaut during most of expedition 15 to the ISS, I had the privilege of living and working with two of the finest cosmonauts in history –Fyodor Yurchikin and Oleg Kotov. IMHO, I truly believe that they will become Russian space legends one day. They are already legends in my mind.

2007年,我在国际空间站上生活了五个月,然后在2010年访问了两个星期,因此我对低地球轨道上的人如何进行“国际间”交流有第一手“经验”。作为国际太空站(ISS) expedition 15任务中大部分时间里唯一的美国宇航员,我有幸与历史上最优秀的两名宇航员费奥多尔·尤尔奇金(Fyodor Yurchikin)和奥列格·科托夫(Oleg Kotov)一起生活和工作。恕我直言,我真的相信他们有一天会成为俄罗斯太空传奇。在我心中,它们已经是传奇。

As to zonal and/or regional restrictions in/on the ISS, there are none. It is more like a set of unwritten rules that astronauts and cosmonauts have to follow. In addition, since my retirement in 2013, it is possible that things have changed. Let me explain.

关于国际空间站中的区域限制问题,其实是没有的。它更像是宇航员必须遵循的一组不成文的规则。此外,自我2013年退休以来,情况有可能发生了变化。让我解释。

Inside the ISS in 2007, Russian cosmonauts and American astronauts had free reign. We could easily, and for no good reason, travel between the two segments. At that time, there were no JAXA (Japan) or ESA (European) modules… everything was either US or Russia, save the Canadian Robotic Manipulator/Arm.

2007年在国际空间站内部,俄罗斯宇航员和美国宇航员享有自由的权利。我们可以任意地在两个部分之间走动。当时,还没有JAXA(日本)或ESA(欧洲)模块…除了加拿大机器人操纵器/手臂,所有东西都是美国或俄罗斯的。

Soyuz Sokol suit checkout after arrival to the ISS with STS-117.

It was understood however, that even though we had trained on each other’s ISS and the Russian’s Soyuz systems, we should refrain from doing anything independently in the segment/area that wasn’t “ours.” For example, if I was in the Russian segment, I would not do any work on anything without the watchful eyes of Fyodor or Oleg or clear direction from the Control Center in Moscow. This did not include going to the bathroom or preparing our food… we could all do that without worry of any restrictions (thank goodness!). But I will tell you, that if the urine tank was full, or the warning light in the toilet came on, I immediately hollered at my crew mates for confirmation of what I believed was going on and what we should do about it.

但是,可以理解的是,即使我们已经在彼此的ISS和俄罗斯的联盟号系统上进行了培训,我们也应该避免在不是“我们”的区域中独立进行任何操作。例如,如果我在俄罗斯段,没有Fyodor或Oleg的注视或莫斯科控制中心的明确指示,我将不会做任何工作。这不包括去洗手间或准备食物…我们都可以这样做而不必担心任何限制(太好了!)。但是我要告诉你,如果尿液箱已满,或者马桶上的警告灯亮了,我会立即向队友大声呼喊,以确认我认为正在发生什么,以及我们应该怎么做。

We had the same type of arrangement within the US segment. It was harder to police as Fyodor and Oleg had more US training than any cosmonauts in history. By virtue of their knowledge and abilities, it was hard to “slow them down,” when they were intent on making things right! Most times however, they knew exactly what to do, and together, we got it done correctly.

在美国段中,我们有相同类型的规则。费奥多(Fyodor)和奥列格(Oleg)在美国接受的培训比历史上的任何宇航员都要多,这就很难管辖他们。由于他们的能力和知识储备,当他们打算做正确的事情时,很难让他们“放慢脚步”!但是,大多数时候,他们确切地知道该怎么做,而且我们在一起做会把事情做得更好。

Outside the ISS was a bit different. There was one rule that US space walkers were always required to uphold. If a US astronaut was to translate over to the Russian segment, permission (verbal… over the communication loops) was required. More like a mental “thought jogger” than a true rule/danger avoidance, it forced us to acknowledge that we were heading into “new” territory where the rules were a bit different. For example, on the Russian segment, thrusters exist… with all the nastiness that comes with them. Avoidance of the areas where the plume and its by-products might contaminate a spacesuit was helpful as far as our multi-million dollar US taxpayer investment was concerned.

在国际空间站外面有点不同。有一条规则,美国的太空行走的宇航员只能回到自己的舱段。如果美国宇航员要进入到俄罗斯部分,则需要获得许可(在交流设备中口头说明……)。它更像是一种精神上的“思想慢跑者”,而不能真正规避危险,这迫使我们认识到我们正朝着规则有所不同的“新”领域前进。例如,在俄罗斯舱段上,存在推进器……伴随着它们带来的所有麻烦。就涉及我们纳税人数百万美元的投资而言,避免烟羽及其副产品可能污染太空服是有很帮助的。

Astro Clay posing with the crew of ISS Expedition 23, April 2010.

2010年4月,美国宇航员Clay与ISS Expedition 23的机组人员合影。

As of 2010, the restrictions –if you can call them that– had begun to morph, and were more monetary in nature. As a member of the STS-131 crew, I returned to ISS at the time Oleg was serving as the station commander. Frank evening meal conversations w/my former crew mate uncovered new restrictions he was being forced to consider and institute. He was not, for example, allowed to perform any tasks in the US segment unless permission (read money received) had been given from his control center team in Moscow. It was not something that either of us felt was a good trend.

截至2010年,这些限制(如果您可以这样称呼)已经开始演变,并且本质上更具货币性。作为STS-131机组的成员,我在奥列格(Oleg)担任站长时回到了国际空间站。与我的前船员的弗兰克晚餐讨论时,发现了他被迫考虑和制定的新限制。例如,除非得到他在莫斯科的控制中心团队的许可(已收到预付款),否则他不允许在美国舱段上执行任何任务。我们俩都不认为这是个好趋势。

These days, I guess it’s the cost of doing business… in space.

这些天,我想这就是在太空做生意的成本。

Keep lookin’ up! Oh… and watch for new rules and regulations. After all, this is America!

继续前进!哦,请注意新的规则和规定。毕竟,这里是美国!

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