Robert Frost 在quora上有关航天的回答收集(四)

国际空间站上有武器吗?Are there weapons aboard the ISS?

Not strictly aboard ISS, but in the Soyuz return capsule there is a survival kit that includes a 9mm Makarov pistol.  That item is included so that should the Soyuz land off-course and recovery is delayed, the cosmonauts can defend themselves against wolves and bears.  NASA astronauts have to rely on their sporks.

严格来说并非在空间站上,但在联盟号返回舱中,有一个救生套件,其中包括9毫米马卡洛夫手枪。 该项目包括在内,这样当联盟号在偏离航道的地方着陆,并且当营救工作不得不推迟时,宇航员可以抵御狼和熊。如果NASA宇航员遇到像俄罗斯宇航员那样的情况,他们所能依赖的就只有自己的叉子了。

【评论区】

@ Clayton C. Anderson

While Mr. Frost is extremely intelligent, and a marvelous trainer of Astronauts (He trained me on the ISS Motion Control System), he is slightly off target on his answer here. When we trained on the Soyuz, the weapon (which I fired in the Black Sea near Sochi, Russia) is a shotgun, whose “gun stock” serves a dual purpose as a machete. Once assembled though, you are supporting our second amendment! I kept my “spork” (combination spoon/fork) highly sharpened, just in case one of those bears or wolves showed up, since the Soyuz commander always had first dibs on the shotgun!

答主Forest非常聪明,并且是一位出色的宇航员培训师(他在ISS运动控制系统上对我进行了培训),但他的回答略有偏题。 当我们在联盟号上训练时,这种武器(我在俄罗斯索契附近的黑海发射的武器)是散弹枪,其枪托还可以作为看到。 组装完成,您还支持我们再次修改! 我一直保持我的“叉子”的高度锐利,以防熊或狼的袭击,但如果真的出现了熊和狼,联盟号的司令官会用散弹枪最先发出怒吼!

@ David Schwartz

They decomissioned the TP-82 in 2007 since the existing ammo stocks decayed and no one was apparently making new  ammo.  Soviet Cosmonauts Carried a Shotgun Into Space

由于现有的弹药库存减少,而且显然没有人制造新的弹药,他们于2007年取消了的报废的TP-82。 Soviet Cosmonauts Carried a Shotgun Into Space

@ Clayton C. Anderson

We had it available on my flight in 2007 and we trained in its use.  Had much fun shooting in the Black Sea near Sochi!

我们在2007年的飞行上就用来那款枪支,我们在培训中知道了怎么使用它。 在索契附近的黑海射击有很多乐趣!

如果印度人可以在NASA工作,为什么就不能在SpaceX工作?If Indians can work for NASA, why can’t they work for SpaceX?

【随后提问者贴上一篇新闻,说的是Elon Mask解释了SpaceX为什么不要那么多外国人】

Your information about NASA demographics is Indian tabloid nonsense[1] . NASA employees are civil servants, which means they have to be U.S. citizens. NASA contractors are not required to be citizens, unless they are working on projects with export restrictions. Launch vehicles require ballistic technologies that could also be applicable to weapons systems. That knowledge is therefore restricted by the State Department. So, NASA contractors and SpaceX face the same restrictions.

您有关NASA人口统计的信息是印度不可靠的小道消息[1]。 NASA员工是公务员,这意味着他们必须是美国公民。 除非NASA从事限制出口的项目,否则NASA承包商无需是美国公民。 运载火箭需要弹道技术,这些技术也可能适用于武器系统。 因此,这种军事技术受到美国国务院的限制。 因此,NASA承包商和SpaceX面临相同的限制。

There are people of Indian heritage at both NASA and SpaceX, but they are American citizens.

NASA和SpaceX都有印度裔人,但他们都是美国公民。

Footnotes

[1] Robert Frost’s answer to What percentage of NASA employees are Indian?

橙色宇航服和白色的有什么区别?What are the differences in the orange and white spacesuits?

The orange suits (affectionately called pumpkin suits) are not spacesuits.  They are worn only while inside a vehicle that is ascending or descending through the atmosphere.  Their primary purpose is to protect the crew member from the adverse effects of a depressurization inside the vehicle.  They are orange because orange creates a high contrast against the background for rescue crews looking for the crew members in the water or on land.

橙色套装(又称南瓜套装)不是太空服。 它们仅在通过大气上升或下降的载具内时才磨损。 它们的主要目的是保护机组人员免受载具内部减压的不利影响。 它们是橙色的,因为橙色为救援人员在水中或陆地上寻找船员提供了高对比度。

The current white suits are spacesuits.  They are designed for use outside the vehicle, in the vacuum of space.  They are designed to provide a pressurized environment, thermal control, and protection against tears and punctures.

当前的白色服装是太空服。 它们设计用于在真空中的载具外部使用。 它们旨在提供加压的环境,温度控制以及防止撕裂和刺穿的保护。

@ Brian Blood

Why are they white? For the high contrast against the darkness of space?

宇航服为什么是白色的?也是为了和黑暗的太空形成高对比度吗?

答主答:

Partially, but primarily because white reflects heat.

这是部分原因。主要原因是白色反射热量。

月尘可以购买吗?Is moon dust available for purchase?

Only if it arrived as a meteorite. The 842 lbs (381.9 kg) of moon rock that were brought back to Earth during the Apollo program are the property of the United States of America and under American law it is illegal (19 U.S.C. § 1595 a(c)(1)(A)) to transfer public gifts into private ownership without explicitly passing a law to do so.

仅当它作为陨石到达时值得购买。 在阿波罗计划期间带回地球的842磅(381.9千克)月岩是美利坚合众国的财产,根据美国法律,这(19 U.S.C § 1595 a(c)(1)(A) ))在未明确通过法律的情况下将公共礼物转为私人所有是非法的。

In 1973, President Nixon toured the world and gave plaques to 135 nations and states.  Each of those plaques included a small flag (that had flown in space) of the nation or state and a small fragment (1.1 grams) of moon rock embedded in lucite.  Those plaques became property of those nations or states and are therefore controlled by their laws.  Some moon rocks are on loan to various museums and laboratories around the world.  The rest are locked up securely about 200 meters from my desk.

1973年,尼克松总统环游世界,并向135个国家和地区颁发了匾。 这些牌匾中的每一个都包含一个悬挂该国家或州的小国旗(在太空中飞行)和一小块(1.1克)月石,嵌在萤石中。 这些月石成为这些国家或地区的财产,因此受其法律控制。 一些月球岩石被借给世界各地的各个博物馆和实验室。 其余的都安全地锁在离我办公桌约200米的地方。

@Tim Cole

You can sometimes get the sawdust from meteorite vendors cutting lunar-origin meteorites into smaller samples. I have a very (very!) tiny sample of lunar dust from that source.

有时您可以从陨石供应商处获得一点,将月球陨石切成较小的样本。 我有一个非常(非常!)小的月球尘埃样本。

@ Jasmine Adamson

I used to know Max Ary, do you know him? Didn’t he steal a bunch of moon rocks? Google doesn’t know a lot about it, would it be worthwhile to ask a question about that whole deal?

我听说过Max Ary,您认识他吗? 他不是偷了一堆月石吗? Google上查不到,是否值得对整个交易提出疑问?

@ Jin Kee

Can you buy simulated moon dust analog? And does the simulated stuff smell like gunpowder like the real thing?

可以购买月尘模拟物吗? 模拟的东西会闻起来像火药,还是像真的一样吗?

答主答:

Yes, there is a company that makes lunar regolith simulant and Martian regolith simulant.  I don’t have any of the lunar type at home, to smell it.  The Martian stuff doesn’t really have a noticeable smell.

是的,有一家公司制造月球表面模拟物和火星表面模拟物。 我家里没有月球类型的。 但火星表面模拟物确实没有明显的气味。

@ Jin Kee

: ) You smelled Mars! That is so cool. Is orbitec that company? (or are you not allowed to endorse any particular vendor?) Online Store for Lunar and Mars Soil Simulant

:)你闻到了火星的气味! 太酷了。 是orbitec那家公司吗? (或者您不能介绍任何特定的供应商?)月球和火星土壤模拟物的在线商店

答主答:

Yep, mine is made by Orbitec.

什么可以让国际空间站与地球失去联系?What could make the ISS lose communication with Earth?

About once every half hour or so there is a loss of communication that can last about ten minutes. This is caused simply by there being a gap between the communication satellites that are used to relay the ISS communications to the ground.

大约每半小时左右出现一次通信中断,持续约十分钟。 这仅是由于用于将ISS通信中继到地面的通信卫星之间存在间隙而造成的。

Other than that, the most likely cause of a loss of communication with the ground is a loss of pointing. This occurs when the primary GNC (Guidance, Navigation, & Control) computer fails and its backup doesn’t immediately take over. When that happens, the information on where to point the high gain antennae is lost and so the line of sight is not established with the next satellite.

除此之外,最可能造成与地面通讯中断的原因是指向失灵。 当主GNC( Guidance, Navigation, & Control ,导航,导航和控制)计算机发生故障,并且其备份没有立即接管时,就会发生这种情况。 发生这种情况时,关于指向高增益天线的位置的信息将丢失,因此将不会与下一个卫星取得联系。

The failure can also be on the ground. Not too long ago, when I was on console, there were problems with hardware in Guam. ISS communication goes from the ISS to TDRSS satellites and from there to either White Sands, New Mexico, or Guam. With the Guam hardware problems, we lost comm on that side of the Earth.

故障也可能是在地面上。 不久之前,当我在控制台上时,关岛的硬件出现问题。 ISS的通信路线是从ISS到TDRSS卫星,再从那里到白沙,新墨西哥或关岛。 由于关岛的硬件问题,我们在地球那一边失去了联系。

@ Ira J Perlow

Why is there a 10 minute gap in communications? Are there not enough communication satellites to relay the data around the planet?

为什么有10分钟的间隔?是因为没有足够的通讯卫星环绕地球吗?

答主答:

There are, but we can’t afford to buy that much time, except on critical days (e.g. EVA or docking).

有那么多卫星,但我们很多时候用不起。除了特殊的时候,例如舱外活动和对接。

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