Clayton C. Anderson在Quora上有关空间站的回答收集(一)

Clayton C. Anderson

2-time ISS astronaut; 6 spacewalks, 30-yrs NASA, Author/Spkr

两次ISS任务的宇航员,6次太空行走,30年NASA工作经验,作者/演讲家

A small town boy from Ashland, Nebraska, I am honored to have been able to live my dream of becoming a United States Astronaut. “Kicked to the curb” by NASA’s Astronaut Selection process fourteen times, I am proud to be the first (and currently only) astronaut ever from the State of Nebraska! My answers are my own, and do not represent NASA…I don’t always agree with what they say and/or do! I’m also an author… who’da thought?!

【这位答主很受欢迎啊,简直是Quora上的宇航员网红啊2333,他写的《普通宇航员》也很好看!】

航天员在从空间站返回地球时会不小心把什么东西忘在空间站上吗?Do astronauts ever accidentally leave items on the ISS when they come back to earth?

What you hear isn’t always correct. The International Space Station (ISS) maintains a data base called the Inventory Management System (IMS). Much like in an American grocery store, items are managed via computer and a scanner, using name, serial number, location, etc. to make sure that if at all possible, we know as best we can where critical equipment/spares are located. Used items are scanned into “trash;” new items are scanned into their stowed locations. Moved items are “unscanned” from where they were and “rescanned” to where they are going. That does not guarantee that we don’t lose things.

你的想法并不正确。 国际空间站(ISS)维护着一个称为库存管理系统( Inventory Management System ,IMS)的数据库。 就像在美国杂货店中一样,物品是通过计算机和扫描仪进行管理的,使用名称,序列号,位置等进行管理,以确保我们尽可能了解关键设备/备件的位置。 用过的物品被扫描到“垃圾箱”中; 新物品将扫描到其存放位置。 如果移动了某件物品,那那件物品又变成了“未扫描”,然后需要“重新扫描”至它们要移动的位置。 但那还不能保证我们不会失去任何东西。

In a micro-gravity environment, things can get lost. I had a chain/St. Christopher’s medal, given to me by Sunita Williams’ mother before I launched, that I lost while “showering” one morning. Turns out I found it near an air vent (inlet) where the air flow had sucked it up against the grate of the vent. Yea! Air vents sometimes serve as our “lost and found” location. Many things (and filth) turn up there.

在微重力环境中,东西可能会丢失。 我有一个圣·克里斯托弗(Christopher)的勋章,是苏妮塔·威廉姆斯(Sunita Williams)的母亲在我发射前给我的,当时我在一次“淋浴”中不见了了。 之后我在通风口(入口)附近找到了它,那里的气流把它吸到通风口的炉排上。 是的 通风孔有时就是我们的“失物招领处”。 那里有很多东西(和污秽)。

Camera lenses have been lost, tools have been lost (both inside and outside of the ISS!), many small items sometimes succumb to the lack of gravity and send crews on “wild goose chases” as we try to locate them.

相机镜头曾丢失了,工具也曾丢失了(在国际空间站的内部和外部都丢过!),许多小物品有时会因缺乏重力到处乱飘,这时候我们就要“追逐野鹅”然后把它放回相应位置。

A wayward pair of pliers floats gently through outer space. Lost during one of the STS-120/Expedition 16 mission spacewalks, I captured this shot from the Russian Service Module. Funny how it ended up as a screeen saver on ISS laptops for the remainder of their mission!

任性的钳子在外太空中轻轻漂浮。 这是在一次STS-120 / Expedition 16飞行任务中丢失的,我从俄罗斯服务舱拍摄了这张照片。 有趣的是,在这项任务剩余的时间里,它成为了ISS笔记本电脑上的屏幕保护程序。

And, even with this grand data base —which by the way, is co-managed by the US and Russia— things can “fall through the cracks” with even larger items being in the “failed to locate” pile for quite some time. As a Capcom during Expedition 18, the crew called down looking for the electronic piano keyboard. They could not locate it via the IMS. I simply called up and said, “… when I lived there, it was located in a big white bag, located on the ceiling in Node 1 in the second rack section.” One minute later, the crew called down saying, “… thanks, we found it!” So much for the concept of modernization!

而且,即使有了这个庞大的数据库(顺便说一句,它是由美国和俄罗斯共同管理的),物品也可能“掉进时空裂缝”,甚至尺寸很大的物品在相当长的一段时间内都“无法定位”。 作为第Expedition 18的座舱指挥员,乘员组被召集来寻找电子钢琴键盘。 他们无法通过IMS找到它。于是我就打了个电话说:“ …当我在那儿时,它放在一个大的白色袋子里,位于第二个机架部分节点1的天花板上。” 一分钟后,机组人员喊道:“ …谢谢,我们找到了!” 这就是现代化的概念!

Keep lookin’ up!

继续向前看!

【评论区】

@Philip Newton

Why was that particular wall of the unit called the ‘ceiling’ if there is no up or down?

太空中没有上下的概念,但为什么空间站里会有块特定的墙会被叫做天花板?

答主:

In order to keep us in a more “normal” orientation, the ISS uses the same up/down, right/left that we have on Earth.  So, we have a ceiling, a floor and two walls… just like you do.  It’s just that we can float around upside down!

是为了让我们保持更好的正常的方向感。ISS与地球上使用相同的上下左右概念,所以,我们有天花板,一块地板,和两面墙…就像在地球上的那样。只是我们能浮起来站在天花板上头朝下!

宇航员在ISS有过腹泻吗?Has an astronaut ever had diarrhea while on the ISS?

Why yes an astronaut has had diarrhea while on the ISS. And it was me!

肯定有过宇航员在ISS上腹泻啊!那就是我!

Getting diarrhea in outer space was certainly not on my bucket list. It was, however, a normal… and qualified “pain in the rear (see what I did there?!).”

在外太空腹泻肯定不是我计划好的。外层腹泻肯定不在我的清单中。 但是,那是正常的……“烦人事情(看看我在那儿做了什么?!)。”

It was early in my 5-month stay aboard the International Space Station. Not sure what brought it on —guessing food— my symptoms began to occur as I was sleeping in the U. S. Lab module. Waking sometime around 2 a.m. Greenwich time (the time zone used for our daily schedules), I knew what was coming. And it was coming fast! I sailed down to the Russian Service Module —the only toilet on the station back in 2007— and entered the tiny enclosed area short of panic, but with very high anxiety.

这是我在国际空间站最初5个月的时候。 不知道是什么原因导致的–我猜是食物–我在美国实验室模块中睡觉时开始出现症状。 我在格林威治时间凌晨2点左右(我们的日程安排所使用的时区)醒来,我知道发生了什么。 而且它来的很快! 我驶向俄罗斯服务舱,这是2007年该站唯一的厕所,进入了一个很小的封闭区域,虽然没有惊慌,但是却充满了焦虑。

After quietly closing the sliding door, I fired up the Russian-designed toilet. I was actually grateful for the late hour, as I was hoping this would ensure that my two Russian crewmates (Oleg and Fyodor) would remain asleep… leaving me to my own devices.

悄悄关上滑动门后,我将俄罗斯设计的马桶开了火。 实际上,我对它这么晚来很感激,因为我希望这可以确保两个俄罗斯机组人员(Oleg和Fyodor)一直在睡觉……好让我能一直呆在这儿。

Ultimately, I would be successful in my crisis-laden endeavor. After using two of the toilet system’s plastic bags (for collecting the fecal matter), and only one rubber glove, my symptoms subsided for a time. This allowed me the opportunity to quietly clean everything up, power-down the system, and fly back to the U. S. segment. It was there that I quickly broke open the American medical kit. Concealed beneath the module’s floor, under a large “door” adorned with the easily recognizable red cross symbol, I used its table of contents to locate the medication I so desperately needed. Immodium AD was —thank God— available for my use, and I followed the dosage recommendation to the letter. I would never have diarrhea again… in space anyway!

最终,我在充满危机时努力并取得成功。 用完两个抽水马桶系统的塑料袋(用于收集粪便)和仅一个橡胶手套后,我的症状消失了一段时间。 这使我有机会安静地清理一切,关闭系统电源,然后飞回美国舱。 在那里,我迅速打开了美国的医疗箱。 它在模块地板下的一个大“门”下,上面有容易辨认的红叉符号,我用它的目录找到了急需的药物。 Immodium AD(感谢上帝)可供我使用,我按照推荐的剂量服用。 无论如何,我再也不会出现腹泻了!

Keep lookin’ up!

继续向前看!

【评论区】

答主

BTW… I failed to mention that the toilet system (pumps/fans,etc) is only allowed to be on for a certain length of time. If on too long, it must then remain off for a specified cooling period. This was another fear I encountered with respect to my diarrhea episode in space. Fortunately I “beat” the time constraint!

顺便说一句……我没提到厕所系统(水泵/风扇等)只允许打开一定的时间。 如果开启时间过长,则必须在指定的冷却时间内保持关闭状态。 这是我在太空中腹泻发作时遇到的另一种恐惧。 幸运的是,我“击败”了时间限制!

如果你在空间站,你会在阳光透过窗户时感到温暖吗?If you’re in the International Space Station, do you feel a warmth from the sunlight that passes through its windows?

Absolutely, you can feel the warmth from the sunlight passing through the station’s windows! One of my favorite things to do while living onboard the International Space Station was to fly into the Russian segment (at that time, Russian modules were the only ones to have windows looking to the sides… and thus, at the sun) and put my face up against the window. As the sun would rise from its half-orbit concealment behind our Earth, I could feel its warmth on my cheeks and its bright light bathing my eyes.

完全可以。你可以在透过空间站窗户的阳光感受到温暖!我在国际空间站上最喜欢的是之一就是飞到俄罗斯段去(那时候,俄罗斯模块是唯一有窗户可以看到太阳的模块),把我的脸贴在窗户上,当太阳从地球后面的 half-orbit concealment 【??】升起时,我可以感觉到两颊的温暖,我的眼睛沐浴在明亮的光芒中。

To gain the maximum effect, I would keep my eyes tightly closed and imagine that I was back home on Earth, lying with my family in our back yard on a beautiful summer’s day… soaking in those life-giving rays from our solar system’s star, some 93 million miles away. For just a few short moments, I was back home, and it felt good. It felt really good!

为了获得最佳效果,我会紧闭双眼,并想象我是在地球上的家里,在一个美丽的夏日,与家人躺在我们的后院里……浸泡在太阳系发出的赋予生命的光芒中,距离约9300万英里。我短暂地回到了家中,感觉很好。 感觉真的很好!

Keep lookin’ up!

继续向前看!

任务完成后,有没有宇航员希望留在太空中而不是返回地球?Has any astronaut ever desired to stay in space instead of returning to Earth after the mission was completed?

This is a very interesting question for me and, as usual, I have an answer for you!

对我来说,这是一个非常有趣的问题,并且像往常一样,我会为您解答!

When the Discovery mission STS-120 launched in late October of 2007, I knew I was going home. I had spent nearly 5 months living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS), but I worked extremely hard to NOT think about returning to earth. I needed to keep my focus on the mission, and not start daydreaming of reuniting with my family… for fear something would happen to “upset the apple cart.”

当Discovery的任务STS-120在2007年10月下旬发射升空时,我知道我要回家了。 我在国际空间站(ISS)上生活和工作了将近5个月,但我非常努力地工作,好让我不去思考重返地球。 我需要继续专注于任务,而不是开始幻想与家人团聚……以免把事情弄糟。

My wife and I had discussed this many times. “What ifs” abounded with regard to the negative possibilities a space launch and mission could entail (think Challenger and Columbia). In the latter portion of my 5-month stay, we had both agreed we could “stick it out a little longer.” By that we meant postponing our longed-for reunion for another month or two would be survivable… but not necessarily desirable. Much longer than that would present a hardship for both of us.

我和妻子已经讨论了很多次。 关于太空发射和飞行可能带来的负面可能性,有很多“假设”(想想挑战者和哥伦比亚)。 在我五个月的逗留的后半段,我们俩都同意我们可以“延长一点时间”。这意味着我们将我们一直渴望的团聚再推迟一两个月……但也不要太想念。 比这更长的时间将给我们双方带来困难。

You may ask why? Why would an astronaut —living their dream, flying in outer space, pushing the boundaries of science, becoming more famous with every single day, and every single Tweet— want to come back? Why not stay up longer, and do more good for our planet and the people of our world? My answer is simple. I had a wife and children I loved. My place was back on earth, and Twitter didn’t exist. Don’t forget that my spouse was running our entire household all by herself… and for much longer than just the short time I was in space.

您可能会问为什么? 为什么一个宇航员——实现他们的梦想,在太空中飞行,突破科学的界限,在每一天和每一条推特中变得更加著名的时候,想要回家? 为什么不熬夜,为我们的星球和世界人民做更多的事情呢? 我的答案很简单。 我有我爱的妻子和孩子。 我的位置在地球上,而Twitter相比起来不值一提。 别忘了我的配偶独自一人经营着我们的整个家庭……而且比我在太空中短暂的时间更长。

She had become the focus of our kids and our family’s Chief Operations Officer way back when I started to travel back and forth to Russia during a 3.5 year training endeavor. She assumed every role —mom, dad, nurse, lawn care provider, chauffeur, repair person, counselor, financier— you name it, she did it! She had sacrificed much, including her personal career advancement, for me to live my dream. To me, that’s what love is all about.

当我在为期3.5年的培训期间不停往返俄罗斯时,她已经成为我们孩子和我们家庭的焦点。 她承担了所有角色-妈妈,爸爸,护士,草坪护理提供者,司机,维修人员,顾问,金融家-随便你说,她做到了! 她为实现我的梦想做出了很多牺牲,包括个人职业发展。 对我来说,这就是爱的全部。

Please understand, my time in space was wonderful. It was exciting, it was incredibly challenging and rewarding, and it was fun! I would love to go back…, on my terms, not NASA’s. But my life’s priorities are not negotiable, and my family is right there at the top.

请理解,我在太空的时候很愉快, 经历也令人兴奋,这是令人难以置信的挑战和回报,而且很有趣! 但我仍然想回去……这是我说的,不是NASA说的。 但是我一生的重中之重是无需讨论的,我的家人排永远在第一位。

Keep lookin’ up!

继续向前看!

【评论区】

@ Barbara Brutsch

Your post reminds me of the Sesame Street song, “I don’t want to live on the moon.”

你的回答让我想起了Sesame Street的歌

So if I should visit the moon
 Well I’ll dance on a moonbeam and then
 I will make a wish on a star
 And wish I were home once again

Though I’d like to look down at the earth from above
 I would miss all the faces of the people I love
 So although I may go I’ll be coming home soon
 Cause I don’t want to live on the moon

No I don’t want to live on the moon

Read more: Sesame Street – I Don’t Want To Live On The Moon Lyrics | MetroLyrics

答主:

I sang this song a couple of years ago, with the Omaha Symphony… a wonderful song, and a wonderful day. Temporary residency is always my first choice, as I love my family dearly. Thanks for sharing… and for following this Ordinary Spaceman!

我几年前也和 Omaha Symphony 唱过这首歌。很美妙的歌,很美妙的一天。我只会在空间站上居住一段时间,因为我深爱着我的家人。 感谢您的分享……请关注我这位普通宇航员!

ISS上有血库来应对紧急情况吗?Does ISS have a blood bank for astronauts in case of any emergency?

Great question, and the answer is no!

好问题,答案是没有!

If an emergency is serious enough to require blood, astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) have little resources. The ISS does not have the capability to store blood in quantities to be used for transfusions. Blood samples, taken from the astronauts, are stored in a freezer on the ISS that can keep things at minus 80 degrees C. It is called MELFI.

如果紧急情况严重到需要血液,国际空间站(ISS)上的宇航员将几乎没有办法。 ISS没有能力储存大量用于输血的血液。 但从宇航员那里采集的血液样本,将存储在ISS的冰箱中,该冰箱可使物体保持在80摄氏度以下。这称为MELFI。

With two Soyuz capsules always attached to the ISS, they serve as lifeboats for the entire crew. Each crewmember has a designated Soyuz that brought them to space. This is where their Russian Sokol (ascent/entry) suit will be stored, and that’s the one they will hop into if an emergency requires a quick return to earth.

两个始终与国际空间站相连的联盟号太空舱,可作为全体船员的救生舱。 每个机组人员都有一个指定的联盟号可以将他们带到太空。 在这里,将存放他们的俄罗斯Sokol(上升/再入)服,这是他们在紧急情况下需要快速返回地面时会穿的宇航服。

For serious emergencies, the plan is to stabilize the injured crew member, and then do an emergency undocking/return to earth. The crew can be on the ground in roughly two hours from the time they leave the ISS. Here’s hoping we never have to invoke that capability.

对于严重的紧急情况,计划是稳定住受伤的机组人员,然后进行紧急分离/返回地面。 机组人员从国际空间站离开后大约两个小时就可以在地面上。 希望我们永远不必调用该功能。

Keep lookin’ up!

继续向前看!

【评论区】

@ Derek Harkness

When you say, “can be on the ground in roughly two hours” is that the best case scenario or it will always be two hours. I assume there are only certain times in the orbit that you can indicate a decent else instead of landing where you planed, say in Kazakhstan, you end up in Brazil or somewhere. Are there any other factors that might delay an emergence decent?

当您说“可以在大约两个小时内到达地面”时,这是最好的情况,还是总是两个小时?。 我认为,在轨道上只有某些时间,你可以预测降落的位置,否则你本来希望降落在哈萨克斯坦,但您最终会到达巴西或某个地方。 还有其他因素可能会延迟紧急返回吗?

Also, Kazakhstan is a pretty big place with a great deal of not a lot in much of it. How accurate would the landing site be? How long would it take the recovery team to get to you and get you to a medical facility – especial considering that this would be an unexpected arrival?

同样,哈萨克斯坦是一个很大的地方,有很多地方。 着陆点的准确性如何? 营救小组需要多长时间才能找到您,并将您送往附近医疗机构-特别是考虑到这将是无法预测的紧急状况?

答主:

2 hours a pretty good estimate… can’t rush orbital mechanics.  Targeting pretty solid as well.  Guaranteed SAR pickup in 48 hours or less, and they are usually there waiting.

2小时是很乐观的估计……如果不用急于解决轨道力学问题,而且 定位也相当准确。 保证在48小时或更短时间内获得SAR,并且他们通常会在那里等待。

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