为什么宇航员需要在太空淋浴? 国际空间站上的卫生状况有多重要?Why do astronauts need to shower in space? How important is hygiene aboard the International Space Station?

【翻译自quora,作者 Clayton C. Anderson 】

First of all, in order to be totally correct, we do NOT shower in space.  The capability for using an actual shower has not been seen since the US Skylab Space Station days.  In order to remain “squeaky clean” on the International Space Station (ISS) we must utilize the concept of “towel baths.”  Regarding Mr. Wheelock’s struggles with flaky skin, I would suggest he re-visit his personal hygiene habits… ewwwwww! 

首先,来说正确,请勿在太空中淋浴。 自从美国Skylab空间站时代以来,还没有出现过可以真正淋浴的功能。 为了在国际空间站(ISS)上保持“吱吱作响的清洁”,我们必须要有“毛巾浴”的概念。 关于 Wheelock 先生与皮肤松弛挣扎,我建议他重新审视自己的个人卫生习惯……ewwwwww!

During my 152 days on the ISS (the shuttle is a slightly different story, but towel baths are still required) the expedition 15 crew had an area in the Russian FGB (functional cargo block) module which we dubbed the “hygiene station.”  In this area, FGB forward, near its hatch connecting it to the US module NODE 1, a small space was cleared, allowing us a dedicated area for clean up. 

在我152天的ISS旅程中(航天飞机的情况稍有不同,但仍需使用毛巾浴),expedition 15的船员在俄罗斯的FGB( functional cargo block ,功能性载货块)模块中留了一块空间,我们称之为“卫生站”。 在该区域中,FGB向前连接至美国模块NODE 1的舱口附近,清理出小空间,这使我们有专用的清洁区域。

Here, in an overhead panel, was stored a water bag, connected to a hose and pump (of Russian origin) combination, with a “spigot” on the end of the hose.  In this area, we could bathe, shave, wash our hair, brush our teeth, etc. –all the things we needed to keep ourselves “tidy” and unoffensive to our crew mates and visitors.

在这里,在一个顶板中存储着一个水袋,该水袋连接到软管和泵(俄罗斯产)组合,软管末端带有一个“尖头”。 在这个区域,我们可以洗澡,刮胡子,洗头发,刷牙等等。所有这些都是为了让我们都保持自己的“整洁”,并且不侵犯我们的船员和访客。

I cleaned up each and every day.  By asking the Mission Control Center (MCC –and yes, they do control nearly every minute of every day!) for my exercise periods to be scheduled first thing in the morning after breakfast, I could wake up, don my exercise clothes, enjoy a quick (small) breakfast, then “head to the gym!”  Once my weight-lifting (more like resistance training since there is no gravitational force of consequence) and aerobic sessions (bicycle or treadmill… we alternated on a daily basis) were complete, I headed to the hygiene station for a much needed cleanup.

我每天都清洁。 我通过问任务控制中心(MCC,是的,他们几乎每时每刻都在控制!)来安排我在早餐后的第一次运动时间,我可以起床,穿上运动服,快速享受小份早餐,然后就“去健身房!” 完成举重(由于没有重力作用,因此更像是阻力训练)和有氧训练(自行车或跑步机……我们每天交替)完成后,我便前往卫生站进行急需的清洁工作 。

The clean-up process was straightforward for me.  I used a Russian wet towel (pre-packaged, containing a disinfectant) and stretched its use for three days before disposing it.  On days 2 and 3, I needed to use our water source to inject some additional water back into the towel, making it softer and more pliable since its initial use; some disinfectant remained.  You see, after every use, you must attach the towel to the ISS wall (I tucked each corner under a bungee strap, “pooching” it from the wall, leaving an air pocket behind), so our environmental control system can “suck” up the remaining moisture therein, for converting to drinking water later (can I get another “…ewwwwwww?!”).

清理过程对我来说很简单。 我使用了俄罗斯湿毛巾(预先包装,内含消毒剂),并在使用三天后将其丢弃。 在第2天和第3天,我需要使用我们的水源,向毛巾中注入一些额外的水,让毛巾在第一次使用后变得更柔软,更柔软。 剩下一些消毒剂。 您会看到,每次使用后,都必须将毛巾放到到ISS的墙壁上(我将每个角都塞在绷带下,再从墙壁上“戳”一下,后面留有气袋),这样我们的环境控制系统才能“吸收” 其中的剩余水分,以便以后转化为饮用水(我还可以“ … ewwwwwww ?!”)。

For shaving and hair washing, I simply squirted some water on my face or head, followed by Edge shaving cream or “rinse-less” shampoo (I rinsed anyway… ’cause leaving that nasty stuff on top of my follically-challenged cranium would SURELY make my head itch!) and completed the tasks much like you would do on Earth.  Shaving required wiping the blades after each couple of “swipes,” since we couldn’t rinse it in the sink like we do at home.  For that I used a small piece of a Russian gauze pad, also pre-packaged.  The gauze pad was thrown into the “wet” trash bag after use.  A standard cotton towel was used to dry my head and face and it was also “bungee’d” to the wall so the moisture in it could be absorbed as well.

对于剃须和洗头,我只需在脸或头上喷些水,然后用Edge剃须膏或“无冲洗”洗发水冲洗(无论如何,我都冲洗了……因为将这些讨厌的东西留在了颅骨上 肯定会令我发痒!)并完成了许多任务,就像您在地球上所做的一样。 剃须需要在每两次“剃须”之后擦拭刀片,因为我们无法像在家里那样在水槽中冲洗它。 为此,我使用了一小块俄罗斯预先包装好的纱布垫。 使用后,将纱布垫扔入“湿”垃圾袋中。 用一块标准的棉毛巾擦干我的头和脸,并且还“放”到墙壁上,因此里面的水分也可以被吸收。

Teeth brushing was pretty normal, with the exception being that you can either spit into a towel or swallow the remains.  I swallowed; creating a nice “after-dinner” breath mint… at minimal risk to my overall health (some out there freaked when I told them I swallowed my toothpaste).

刷牙也很常见,你可以把牙膏吐到毛巾上或吞下。 我吞过; 于是就有了美味的“餐后”薄荷糖,对我的整体健康的危害很小(当我告诉他们我吞下牙膏时,其中的一些吓坏了)。

At the end of my personal clean-up session, I added a small touch of the Russian after shave they so generously provided for me in my Russian-made dopp kit.  Not too powerful, but a “manly” scent, to keep me smelling good the entire day!

在我的个人清理结束时,俄罗斯人慷慨地提供了俄罗斯制造的多普勒工具包中的剃须刀,我在用它剃须后,我就多了一点俄罗斯风味。 并不很大,而是一种“男子气概”的气味,让我整天都闻起来很香!

As my good friend and well-known Quora Space Expert Robert Frost so eloquently states: “Six people are trapped in an enclosed volume.  Hygiene is of paramount importance.”  I agree!  Recalling my Russian crew mate Oleg Kotov floating effortlessly toward me in his usually smelly gym clothes is not one of my fondest ISS memories!

正如我的好朋友——著名的Quora空间专家罗伯特·弗罗斯特(Robert Frost)所说的那样:“六个人在一个封闭的空间里。卫生至关重要。” 我同意! 回忆起我的俄罗斯乘务员奥列格·科托夫(Oleg Kotov)穿着通常很臭的运动服轻松地向我飘来,这并不是我在空间站上的美好回忆!

Keep clean and keep lookin’ up!

保持清洁并继续向前看!

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