为什么宇航员似乎会佩戴3枚手表？ Why do astronauts seem to wear up to 3 wrist-watches?
Good question, simple answer! The black watches in this picture are part of an experiment called SLEEP. While I don’t readily recall the acronym’s description, the experiment requires the astronaut wear a special watch, capable of “seeing” light/dark and sensing movement/no movement.
好问题，答案简单！ 图中的黑色手表是SLEEP的实验的一部分。 虽然我不记得这个首字母缩写词的描述，但实验要求宇航员戴上一块特殊的手表，该手表能够“看到”明/暗并感应运动/不运动。
Over time, astronauts upload the data from the watch to the ground investigators, using a laptop computer. These onboard/zero-gravity data are compared with data gathered on Earth pre- and post-flight. The scientists can then tell how well/long an astronaut slept during the nights throughout their time in orbit. (I averaged about 7 hrs, 20 minutes over 152 days).
随着时间流逝，宇航员使用便携式计算机将数据从手表上传到地面调查员。 将这些机载/零重力数据与飞行前和飞行后收集的数据进行比较。 然后，科学家们可以说出宇航员在轨道上的夜晚中睡了多长时间/睡得有多好。 （我在152天内平均每天大约需要7小时20分钟）。
This data will lead to possible ways to increase/enhance an astronaut’s ability to get meaningful/restful sleep while in space. For many astronauts, sleep does not come easy during a mission, due to many factors like stress, excitement, adaptability, etc. Applications to those of us on the ground are many, including ways to alter circadian rhythms that could help Emergency Room doctors, long haul truck drivers and even Mission Control Center flight controllers, all of whom must sometimes work long shifts.
这些数据将导致可能的方式来增强宇航员在太空中获得有意义/安宁的睡眠的能力。 对于许多宇航员来说，由于压力，兴奋，适应性等诸多因素，任务期间睡眠并不容易。对我们这些人的实际应用很多，包括改变昼夜节律的方法，这些方法可以帮助急诊室的医生， 长途卡车司机，甚至是任务控制中心的飞行控制员，所有这些人有时都必须轮班工作。
Other watches are worn by astronauts to simply tell the time; and many wear multiple versions such that they can have onboard time (GMT/Greenwich), their family’s local time (e.g., Houston) and perhaps a third time of interest (e.g., Russia).
Oops, just checked my watch… time to stop typing!
But YOU all need to keep lookin’ up!
@ John Kes
What about radiation dosimeters? Were they worn on the wrist or on the shirt?
We are supposed to wear dosimeters to measure our radiation exposure. Many astronauts “cheat” the system by placing theirs between two water bags, thereby shielding their dosimeter from radiation! I did not do that… but I took the attitude that I was flying in space and radiation was going to “ping” me no matter what. I didn’t care at all… I was “living the dream!”
我们应该佩戴剂量计来测量我们的辐射暴露量。 许多宇航员通过将其放置在两个水袋之间来“欺骗”该系统，从而屏蔽了其辐射剂量计！ 我没有那样做……但是我任务我在太空中飞行，无论如何辐射都会“接触到”我。 但我一点也不在乎……我的生活就像“活在梦里”那样美好！
在国际空间站中呆了许多天后，回到地球后用脚走路的感觉如何？After floating around in the ISS for many days, how does it feel to use your feet and walk when you get back to Earth?
I spent 152 days living and working on the International Space Station (ISS), constantly under the influence (or not under the influence) of minimal gravitational forces. Micro-gravity, a wonderful boon for astronauts while in space, can create the potential for problems when those same astronauts return to Earth –facing the full brunt of her gravitational tug.
STS-131 Pilot Jim “Mash” Dutton, delicately balances the author on his finger in Node 2 on the International Space Station. April 2010
When I returned to Earth, I felt extremely heavy; 200 pounds heavy, as a matter-of-fact. I shuffled when I walked for the first couple of hours and I had a huge urge to “rotate right” –right into the wall! The fluids in my brain were still “spinning” as if I had stayed in low-earth orbit. It would take awhile before my personal gray matter was fully back on earth with me. But when it was, I recovered quickly… no doubt due to my dedication in doing my daily 2.5 hours of exercise on ISS.
回到地球后，我感到非常重。 实际上有200磅重。 最初几个小时我走路的时候很混乱…我强烈地希望“向右旋转”-转到墙壁里面去！ 我大脑中的液体仍在“旋转”，似乎我还停留在低地球轨道上一样。 我的大脑灰质还需要一段时间才能回到地球上来。 但是当它恢复时，我很快恢复了…毫无疑问，这归功于我每天在ISS上进行2.5个小时的锻炼。
I recovered so quickly that the next morning –after a solid night’s sleep– I was able to walk erect, without the desire to turn into structures and without the aid of someone holding me up (although I let my two kids think I needed them holding me; it felt so awesome and “Dad-like!”). I could stand, sit (sitting was painful… after all, I hadn’t done it in 5 months), and walk easily. Truthfully, I felt pretty darned good.
我恢复得如此之快，以至于第二天早上-经过一夜的睡眠-我就能够直立行走了，也不像第一天那样想变成建筑物，也不需要别人扶着我（尽管我让两个孩子认为我需要 他们抱着我；感觉真棒，“这就是当爸爸的感觉！”。 我可以站着坐着（坐着很痛苦……毕竟，我已经五个月没坐过了），而且走路也很轻松。 说实话，我感觉很不错。
Many astronauts have different stories about their returns and their feet/walking. Some had tender feet, needing special footwear (e.g., “Crocs”) to get around. Others felt pain from the lack of muscle use. It took many a few days before they could begin their rehabilitation, which focused heavily on balance and “getting around” normally using one’s feet. I had none of that. I rode the stationary bike for 15 minutes the first day home and then initiated my full regimen of rehab with NASA physical trainer Mark Guilliams, the day after that. I was fully “back-to-normal” in only three weeks time (6 weeks is typically for full recovery).
许多宇航员在返回和脚步方面都有不同的故事。 一些人的脚柔软，需要特殊的鞋类（例如“ Crocs”）才能走动。 其他人则因缺乏肌肉使用而感到疼痛。 他们花了好几天才可以开始康复，康复主要集中在平衡和用脚正常“四处走动”。 我没什么特殊症状。 我在回家的第一天骑了15分钟的固定自行车，然后在第二天与NASA体育教练Mark Guilliams进行了全面的康复训练。 我仅用了三周的时间就完全“恢复了正常”（通常需要6周才能完全恢复）。
Want the full story? Check out “The Ordinary Spaceman,” in the chapter entitled “The Hard Thump of Reality,available NOW! University of Nebraska Press or Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & more or Page on barnesandnoble.com
Keep lookin’ up!
I look forward to ‘the rest of the story’ because it is very interesting and requires detailed descriptions from those who have felt this, and which the rest of us never will. Regardint the closing line: there is a quote I am particularly fond of, which says (from Sarah Williams): “I have been too fond of the star to be afraid of the night”. So I keep looing up!
我非常想看故事的剩余部分，因为我觉得只有亲身经历过的人才能说得有趣而有细节，没经历过的人就做不到，关于你的结束语【译注，指答主每次在Quora上回答问题后都会加上的结束语 Keep lookin’ up! 】，我有一句特别喜欢的话，引用自莎拉·威廉姆斯（Sarah Williams）“我太喜欢这些星星了，所以我从来没惧怕过黑夜”。所以我也要一直向前！
Exactly! You’ll love my new book “The Ordinary Spaceman!” Pick it up or order online today! University of Nebraska Press
完全正确！ 您会爱上我的新书《普通宇航员》！ 立即领取或在线订购！ 内布拉斯加大学出版社
宇航员前往太空/离开地球时是否需要护照？ 他们不是应该，至少在执行任务时可能暗示他们必须在不属于自己的任何领土上降落在地球上吗？Do astronauts need passports when they travel to space/leave Earth? Shouldn’t they, at least when their mission could imply them having to land on Earth in any territory which isn’t their own?
Astronauts do NOT need passports or visas when they leave Earth and travel into outer space… at least they don’t at this time in our history.
On a slightly related note, a good U.S. Astronaut story concerns first-time flier astronauts heading toward the launch pad for their inaugural trip into space. As a way to indoctrinate these so-called rookies, so the story goes, experienced astros would cleverly have fake shuttle boarding passes made in advance.All veteran fliers on the crew would conceal their boarding pass within one of the numerous pockets adorning their bright orange launch and entry suit.
Then, on their way to the pad, just before the final drive up the hill to the launch crawler platform, the commander sternly instructs the crew to “… have your boarding passes ready.” Imagine the confusion of the rookies as they scramble to try and figure out exactly “… what boarding passes?” The looks between the already stress-laden neophytes are said to be priceless!
然后，当他们到达发射台，在最终到达发射履带平台之前，指挥官严厉地要求机组人员“……准备好登机牌”。 想象一下，那些菜鸟就会十分想弄清楚“……登机牌究竟是个什么玩意？”。 据说，饱受压力的新手的表情是无价的！
The STS-117 crew prepares to board the Astro Van for the trip out to Launch Pad 39-A, June 8, 2007.
The trap sprung, good laughs result as the commander gives up the sham, hopefully providing a bit of stress relief for those heading toward their initial meeting with micro-gravity.
Unfortunately (or maybe fortunately?), the commanders for my two flights into space: STS-117/C.J. Sturckow and STS-131/Alan “Dex” Poindexter, chose not to utilize this worn-out shuttle tradition. It might have helped me!
不幸的是（或者幸运的是？），我两次进入太空的指挥官：STS-117 / C.J. Sturckow和STS-131 / Alan“ Dex” Poindexter决定不使用这种老旧的航天飞机传统。 可能对我有帮助！
The STS-131 crew poses at the top of the stack during their Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) in March 2010.
Keep lookin’ up… or keep lookin’ for that boarding pass! You’re gonna need it?!
There’s a book – maybe Space Shuttle: The First 20 Years? – that relates this prank being pulled on no less than John Glenn!
I’m sure that it’s in there. But more people will see my post here on Quora!
What happens when an astronaut launches from one country and lands in another? For example, I believe there was an ISS crew that launched on a Shuttle and returned in a Soyuz.
Today we launch AND land using the Russian Soyuz. Now… and when we sometimes launched on Shuttles and landed with the Soyuz, I believe that ground troops take care of making sure visas/passports, etc. are already in Russia when they land.
我是色盲。 我没机会再成为宇航员了吗？I’m color blind. Does this ruin my chances of becoming an astronaut?
Unfortunately Abhinav, being color-blind –at least in my understanding of the astronaut selection criteria– does eliminate you from consideration as a United States astronaut.
As an astronaut, many of the things we need to know and understand are related to color. From our caution and warning system, which uses RED for emergencies, and YELLOW for cautions, to our simple packing system which uses GREEN to indicate “return to earth,” YELLOW for “send to outer space,” and WHITE for “permanent location,” colors are a part of our daily lives in space. Not having the physical capability to discern these colors quickly and clearly could impair a crew’s ability to respond appropriately and rapidly.
作为宇航员，我们需要了解和理解的许多事物都与色彩有关。 从我们的警告系统（使用RED表示紧急情况，并使用YELLOW表示警告），到简单的停泊系统（使用GREEN表示“返回地球”，YELLOW表示“发射到外层空间”，WHITE表示“永久位置”）， “颜色是我们在太空中日常生活的一部分。 如果没有足够的能力快速，清晰地辨别这些颜色，可能会减弱机组人员做出适当而迅速的反应的能力。
Rumor has it that one astronaut was able to “beat the tests” –perhaps it was before being color-blind was a disqualifier– and garner selection into the astronaut corps, even though he was actually color-blind. If true, that was certainly an exception.
But don’t despair. The way technology is advancing these days, you never know what may happen in the world of Ophthalmology. It’s possible that one day your ability to see in color could be restored.
但是不要绝望。 如今，技术正在飞速发展，您永远都不知道眼科世界明天会发生什么。 也许有一天，您辨别彩色的能力可能会恢复。
In the meantime, keep lookin’ up…
If the original poster is strong in mathematics, material sciences or biology, he or she can join NASA and make astronauts rely upon his or her expertise. If there is a science center or planetarium in the poster’s town, he or she can join and explain the space program to the general public.
Excellent suggestions Elizabeth! NASA is all about team… not just astronauts!
你能在太空中哭泣吗？Can you cry in space?
I cried in space several times… due to some very emotional circumstances. I speak of several of these situations in my upcoming book. Look for it in the spring of 2015. Crying is exactly the same as here on Earth, except the tears don’t fall down as there is no gravity. Not a big deal at all… the emotions I experienced however, were a big deal. Some due to personal events and some due to circumstances inflicted upon my family by folks at NASA… should make interesting reading.
Keep lookin’ up
由于某些让我非常激动的情况，我在太空中哭了好几次。 在我即将出版的书中，我谈到了其中的几种情况。 它将在2015年春季出版。哭泣的方式与地球上的完全一样，只是眼泪不会掉下来，因为没有重力。 没什么大不了的……但是，我那时经历的情绪变化却很重要。 有些是由于个人事件，有些是由于美国国家航空航天局（NASA）的人对我的家人造成的影响…这应该值得一读。
And here we are thinking the whole astronaut thing is so glamorous.
Coolest job in the universe, but my book aims to tell what I think is a more “human” side of what it’s like.
Got it. Buy book. Ok. 🙂