Clayton C. Anderson在Quora上有关航天的回答收集(三)

当宇航员的氧气箱中没有氧气时会发生什么?根据电影《地心引力》的说法,“您的氧气罐中没有氧气,但宇航服中还有”-这意味着什么?What happens when astronauts are out of oxygen in the tank? According to the movie Gravity, “you are out of oxygen in tank but have it in suit” -what does that imply?

I think it means you’re gonna die!  An astronaut’s space suit has two supplies of oxygen:  one is the nominal/regular supply, typically good for a 6-8 hour spacewalk (assuming normal breathing rates).  A 30-minute back-up (or secondary) oxygen supply is also self-contained within the suit, for use in the event of an emergency which requires an EVA (spacewalk) abort.  Abort means we must return to the airlock within that 30 minutes or risk having no more oxygen at all… this is NOT GOOD and we practice for this in (NASA) Houston’s Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL)! 


The movie may refer to the fact that even if your main tank is empty, you still have 30 minutes in the secondary OR it could mean that if all your suit tank O2 is exhausted, there is still a very small amount that could remain within the lines of the suit; and that ain’t much!  You’ll have to ask the movie’s director/producer.


Often, astronauts return to the airlock to replenish their suit’s main O2 tank.  Usually this is because they are working far too hard and breathing far too fast, thereby depleting their supply too quickly.  This can happen on a rookie’s first spacewalk or if a difficulty pops up and requires the astronaut to exert much more effort than normally required.  My “rookie” spacewalk lasted 7 hrs and 41 minutes and I had so much O2 left that we could have stayed out for another 90 minutes or so… guess that means I was “born” to perform spacewalks!


Keep lookin’ up (and at your O2 gauge!)!


NASA每年仅支付 宇航员 80,000美元到140,000美元之间的薪水吗?考虑到他们冒着生命危险的事实,这难道不是太少了?还是他们获得了其他好处?Are NASA astronauts only paid between $80,000 and $140,000 per year? Considering the fact that they risk their lives, isn’t that scanty? Or do they get any additional benefits?

Astronaut pay? Hell yes, it’s “scanty!” When compared to TV and movie stars; sports figures around the world; CEO’s of Fortune 500 companies and the like; astronauts don’t get paid squat, even when one considers we do risk our lives. Yet most of us really don’t care. We’re doing what we’ve dreamed of doing, many of us since we were young children.

宇航员的薪水吗?真是的,那是“稀少!”与电视和电影明星相比;世界各地的体育人物; 《财富》 500强公司之类的首席执行官;即使有人认为我们确实冒生命危险,宇航员也不会得到报酬。但是我们大多数人真的不在乎。我们正在做我们梦寐以求的事情,这是我们中许多人从小时候就想做的事。

My wife and I discuss this topic frequently. Our conversation always returns to the solid work of our United States military veterans. If we consider their “working conditions,” it puts those of astronauts in a different perspective. I cannot speak for my colleagues, but in my personal experience astronauts and military service men and women have similar experiences in some significant ways.


We toil in the framework of government service, we are subjected to family separations, the result of long —and sometimes frequent— deployments. We must perform according to rules and regulations many would find overly restrictive. Yet we soldier on, many for our love of country and the impact we can have on people’s lives, including preserving freedom in America and around the world.


But there is a big difference. As astronauts, we don’t put ourselves in harm’s way with the regularity of those defending our country abroad. I don’t recall many incidents where someone was shooting at me or my crewmates, or I was placed in the unenviable position of trying to find and avoid an IED. I never had to patrol a foreign land —wearing heavy (and hot) equipment that made my spacesuit look like a pair of overalls— protecting those who longed to live in freedom and not under some aggressively oppressive regime.


Sure, I risked my life when I dove in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab during spacewalk training. Yes, I risked my life when I flew sorties in the T-38 jets to give me “spaceflight readiness training.” And of course I risked my life by jumping on an explosive-laden rocket to fly into the vacuum of outer space. But I did it infrequently, and all of those things were FUN!

当然,当我在中性浮力实验室( Neutral Buoyancy Lab )训练太空行走时,我在冒着生命危险。是的,当我乘坐T-38喷气机进行“太空飞行准备训练”时,我冒着生命危险。跳上装有爆炸性物质的火箭,飞向外层真空,我也在冒着生命危险。虽然我很少能这样做,但所有这些都很有趣!

And when it was all over, people patted me on the back and told me how brave I was… how wonderfully I performed during the missions (well maybe not everyone…), and how cool they thought astronauts are. I never once worried about spending the rest of my life in a wheel chair, or fighting through years of rehabilitation without one of my arms or legs. I didn’t spend sleepless nights filled with horrible dreams and the effects of PTSD.

当一切结束时,人们拍拍我的背,告诉我我有多勇敢……在执行任务期间表现出色(也许不是每个人……),他们认为宇航员有多酷。我从来没有担心过将余生都坐在轮椅上,也不用担心失去一只胳膊或腿后,经过多年康复训练才能再次飞行。我没有度过充满了噩梦 和PTSD 的不眠之夜。

Sure, it would be wonderful to be compensated like a Michael Jordan, or a Warren Buffett, but it’s not necessary for me. I was “living the dream.” Perhaps it’s better that our brave military men and women receive more than the meager salaries they bring home now. And when they do return home? Thank them for their service and give them that pat on the back. They’re the ones that really earned it.


Keep lookin’ up… and thanking our veterans!


当宇航员进入太空时,他们会被太阳照瞎吗? 他们是否必须避免看它?When astronauts are in space can they still be blinded by the sun? Do they have to avoid looking at it?

Absolutely we avoid looking into the sun… just like we do on Earth. As a matter of fact, we often wear sunglasses to shield our eyes during docking operations when an untimely appearance of the sun in our eyes could be quite detrimental. During spacewalks, the suit we wear has a golden helmet visor, specifically designed to protect our eyes from the brightness of the sun while we are working outside of the International Space Station. Remember too, that we are not looking through the Earth’s atmosphere, we are flying above it which gives us a tad more brightness than you might experience on the planet. Most of the ISS windows are provided with UV shielding, further protecting us from the more harmful aspects of the sun’s rays.

绝对地,我们要避免直视太阳……就像我们在地球上一样。 实际上,在对接操作中,我们经常戴墨镜来遮挡眼睛,因为我们的眼睛不小心直视太阳是很有害。 在太空行走期间,我们穿着的宇航服带有宇航员头盔护目镜,在我们在国际空间站外工作时,专门用于保护我们的眼睛免受阳光的照射。 还要记住,我们并没有地球的大气层的保护,而是在其上方飞行,我们遇到的太阳的亮度,比您在地球上遇到的亮度可能高一点。 大部分ISS窗户都配备了紫外线防护罩,可以进一步保护我们免受太阳光线更有害的影响。

Keep lookin’ up… but use appropriate UV protection!


是否有规定要求宇航员不能留胡子?Is there a rule against astronauts having beards?

Is there a rule against astronauts having beards? My understanding is that, in general, the answer is no. Yet as is often the case, a few caveats exist requiring further explanation.


Once you get into space, there is little to keep men from growing a beard (women too, I guess… if they can do it!). Shaving for me was a bit of a pain, so letting it grow might have been an advantage. In addition, it would have saved “consumables” like shaving cream and razor blades, not to mention the wipes used to clean my gunked up blades after each swipe of the razor across my face.

一旦进入太空,几乎没有什么可以阻止男人留胡须的了(如果女人能长胡须的话,那她们也可以,我猜….)。 对我来说刮胡子有点痛苦,所以让它生长可能好一点。 此外,还可以节省诸如剃须膏和剃须刀片之类的“消耗品”,更不用说在每次刮胡刀扫过我的脸后,都要用来擦拭弄皱的刀片的湿巾了。

The only astronaut “activity” I can point to where a beard would not be allowed —or at least seriously frowned upon— is flying the T-38 jet airplane. In flying the jet, your helmet’s attached oxygen mask must have a clear seal against your face. Any leakage between your face and the rubber mask could lead to hypoxic symptoms at high altitudes (above 16,000 feet) due to an inefficient O2 supply to your brain. Serious consequences are possible in cases of hypoxia, so whiskers on a fully-bearded face jeopardizing that seal, means it’s probably not a good idea.

我可以指出的唯一宇航员不能留胡须——要么就得极度小心——的“活动”是驾驶T-38 飞机。 在飞行时,您头盔上连接的氧气面罩,必须完全贴到脸上。 面部和橡胶面罩之间的任何空隙,都可能导致由于氧气供应不足而在高海拔(16,000英尺以上)引起的低氧症状。 在缺氧的情况下可能会造成严重后果,因此胡须会破坏密封性,这可能不是一个好主意。

#TheOrdinarySpaceman captures a “selfie” while flying in a NASA T-38 with oxygen mask/helmet combination clearly visible.

As with many astronaut activities, rules are sometimes required, but often it is left to common sense, risk assessment, and good judgment. Recall that many of the Apollo and Skylab astronauts appeared heavily bearded in photos/videos documenting their exploits in what was considered “long” duration spaceflight back then.

与许多宇航员活动一样,有时需要规则,但通常需要常识,风险评估和良好的判断力。 回想一下,许多阿波罗(Apollo)和Skylab宇航员看上去都留着胡子,也有很多记录着他们在当时被认为是“长时间”的太空飞行的照片/视频。

Keep lookin’ up!

当宇航员在ISS上使用水或其他饮品时,这些水会飘走并损坏电子设备吗?Can water and other drinks that run away while astronauts onboard the ISS try to consume them damage the electronic equipment on the ISS?

If you refer to what happens when astronauts “play” with liquids while living in a near zero gravitational environment; yes, it is possible for those “free-floating” liquids to get into sensitive equipment and cause significant damage.  While I lived on board the ISS, one of my biggest fears was from shuttle crew members who arrived in space with little to no experience in micro-gravity.  Most loved to play with liquids, yet they didn’t really have the experience to pull it off without making a mess or doing damage.  The other issue was their desire to always use tropical fruit punch as its bright red color made for the best pictures and videos.  Well… spilling red punch all over everything leaves many stains that can be a real pain to clean up.

如果您提到当宇航员在接近零重力的环境中“玩”液体时会发生什么? 是的,那些“自由漂浮”的液体有可能进入敏感设备并造成严重损坏。 当我住在国际空间站时,我最大的恐惧之一是航天飞机的伙伴到达太空,他们对微重力的了解很少甚至没有。 大多数人都喜欢玩液体,但他们实际上不知道怎样把液体弄回来以避免弄得一团糟。 另一个问题是他们希望始终使用热带水果酒的鲜艳的红色,以期能拍出最佳的图片和视频。 好吧…红色的东西几乎洒在所有地方留下许多污渍,这可能是清理的真正痛苦。

Quick reflexes were often required as the slightest input of force to the bag or the straw or even the floating bubble could cause a liquid disaster.  My favorite trick was to create a large sphere of liquid, let it float slowly in the middle of a module and then gently blow on the sphere to move it where I wanted it to go.  We could also put things inside the sphere, like M&Ms or Japanese flower blossoms.  That always led to some spectacular video clips and photos!

防止造成破坏要快速反应,因为对袋子或吸管很轻微的力,甚至是漂浮的气泡都可能导致液体灾难。 我最喜欢的技巧是创建一个大的液体球,让它在模块中间缓慢漂浮,然后轻轻吹动这个球,以让它移动到我想去的地方。 我们还可以将诸如M&Ms(巧克力豆品牌)或日本花朵之类的东西放到球体内。 这总是拍出一些奇特的视频和照片!

Keep lookin’ up… or at least through a water droplet!  ;0)

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