宇航员如何确保自己没有被细菌污染月球? 宇航服能将所有细菌保留在里面吗?How did astronauts ensure they did not contaminate the Moon with bacteria? Are space suits able to keep all bacteria inside?

【翻译自quora, Jonathan Miller, 30+ Years NASA Engineer, Johnson Space Center, Houston 】

The spacesuits are not perfectly sealed. Everything leaks. The oxygen packs have to make up the difference between what oxygen is consumed as well as the leakage. It is not a hermetically sealed package by any stretch of the imagination.

太空服没有完全密封。 所有东西泄漏。 氧气袋必须弥补消耗的氧气和泄漏的差额。 并非凭空想象,它不是你所想象的密封包装。

As for bacteria, human beings are full of them. And while it may be a bit of a myth that our bodies contain 10 times as many bacteria as human cells there are still trillions of them. So it is inevitable that humans have contaminated the lunar surface.

至于细菌,人类身上充满了细菌。 尽管我们的人体所含细菌数量是人体细胞的10倍,虽然看起来不太可能,但确实有数万亿个细菌。 因此,不可避免人类污染了月球表面。

Can those microbes survive on the Moon? Probably not. For decades we weren’t sure. Apollo 12 landed near the Lunar Surveyor which had landed years earlier. The Apollo 12 crew retrieved a camera from the Surveyor and brought it back to Earth. Inside the camera scientists found 50 to 100 bacteria. It was believed at the time these bacteria somehow survived on the Moon for years in the harsh environment.

这些微生物可以在月球上生存吗? 可能不是。 几十年来我们不确定。 阿波罗12号在多年前登陆的月 Lunar Surveyor 附近降落。 阿波罗12号(Apollo 12)的工作人员从 Surveyor 那里取回了一部照相机,并将其带回了地球。 在相机内部,科学家发现了50至100种细菌。 人们认为,当时这些细菌以某种方式在恶劣的环境中在月球上存活了很多年。

No peer reviewed study was written about this phenomenon and the claims were dubious at best. A recent review of the data shows scientists studying the camera were ridiculously sloppy. They were wearing short sleeve shirts for example. Obviously the camera was contaminated in the lab after it was returned.

没有关于该现象的同行评议研究,而且这种说法充其量也令人怀疑。 最近对数据的审查显示,研究相机的科学家非常草率。 例如,他们穿着短袖衬衫。 显然,在归还照相机后,照相机在实验室中被污染了。

So the Moon is safe from Earth bacteria but what about Mars? The job of the Planetary Protection People is to protect the planets from humans, not the other way around. We sterilized the probes before we send them to Mars but we can’t sterilize a human being that contains trillions of bacteria.

因此,月球暂时没有地球细菌的侵害,那么火星呢? Planetary Protection People 的工作是保护行星免受人类的侵害,而不是相反。 在将探针发送到火星之前,我们已经对其进行了灭菌处理,但是我们无法对包含数万亿细菌的人类进行灭菌处理。

If we send humans to Mars it is inevitable we will contaminate it with Earth bacteria. Can they survive on Mars? That is unknown. Tests are underway to characterize the level of bacteria and leakage from the Mars prototype spacesuits. But the current technology prevents us from building a perfectly sealed suit.

如果我们将人类送往火星,那里将不可避免地会被地球细菌污染。 他们可以在火星上生存吗? 那是未知的。 目前正在进行测试适用于火星的太空服上的细菌以及泄漏成都。 但是当前的技术使我们无法制造出完美密封的宇航服。

My belief is that if we are extremely worried about contaminating Mars with Earth bacteria then humans should never go there.


@ Alan Hall

I imagine that if we do establish a colony on Mars, that some of our bacteria will eventually evolve to be able to survive there despite our best efforts to prevent it. A human colony will introduce environments that are middle ground between our engineered Earth environment and the native Mars one, or cycle between them as in an airlock. Just as ancient Earth tidal zones allowed life from the sea to crawl up onto land, such blended environments will provide the ability for Earth bacteria to quickly evolve the survival traits necessary to live on Mars.

我认为,如果我们确实在火星上建立了一个殖民地,尽管我们会尽最大的努力来防止这种细菌的繁殖,但我们的某些细菌最终仍将进化为能够在那里生存。 一个人类殖民地将拥有介于地球与火星原生环境之间的环境,或者通过气闸在它们之间循环。 就像古老的地球潮汐带允许海洋生物爬到陆地上一样,这种混合环境将为地球细菌提供快速发展生存在火星上的生存特征的能力。

While the surface of Mars may be hostile, irradiated and toxic, imagine a colony inside a lava tube, illuminated by LEDs and pressurized Earth atmosphere growing crops in purified Martian soil. Imagine ice mining and purification operations. Indeed, geothermal heated underground water may be the most likely place to find life on Mars.

尽管火星的表面很不友善,会受到辐照并且有毒,但想象一下熔岩管内的一个殖民地,它被发光二极管照亮,在加压的地球大气和净化的火星土壤中生长着农作物。 想象一下冰的开采和净化操作。 确实,地热加热的地下水可能是最有可能在火星上找到生命的地方。

@ Charles-Valentin Alkan

As a scientist, it makes me cringe that other scientists could be so careless as to allow a potentially important subject of research to be contaminated. This isn’t some dingy second rate community college lab, this is Nasa, they of all people should be more careful. (I study microbiology and genetics, and knowing all of the precautions we go through to avoid contamination in mundane everyday procedures, just makes it all the more egregious that Nasa scientists failed to do that in a much more important situation.

作为一名科学家,这让我感到胆怯,其他科学家可能会如此粗心,以至于可能污染了潜在的重要研究课题。 这不是一个肮脏的二流社区大学实验室,这是美国国家航空航天局(Nasa),所有人都应该更加小心。 (我研究微生物学和遗传学,并且知道我们为避免日常一般程序受到污染而采取的所有预防措施,要是美国国家航空航天局的科学家在更重要的情况下却能做到这一点,将更加令人震惊。


Yes I completely agree. But as an explanation this was not a scientific experiment. The camera was removed from the Surveyor because the one brought on Apollo 12 had failed. This camera was used as a replacement. Once returned to the ground the engineers thought, “hey let’s take a look at how this camera survived on the Moon” A science experiment would have been much more carefully controlled.

是的,我完全同意。 但是解释为这不是科学实验。 由于带上了阿波罗12号的那台摄影机失效了,所以将摄影机从 Surveyor 处移走了。 该相机被用作替代品。 一旦回到地面,工程师们就会想:“嘿,让我们来看看这台相机如何在月球上幸存下来”。科学实验应该被更加仔细地控制。

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