宇航员为什么会在太空中长高一英寸Why do astronauts grow an inch in space?

【翻译自Quora】

@ Clayton C. Anderson, A NASA astronaut who lived and laughed in space for quite a while! 的回答

That’s an easy one to answer… and trust me, Garrett was hugely excited to grow any amount of inches in space!

这是一个容易回答的问题……相信我,无论在空间中长高多少,Garrett都会非常兴奋!

On earth, our bodies are “slaves” to the force of gravity each and every day.  I am six feet tall, and the gravitational tug keeps me that way, acting through my center of gravity all the way to the earth’s center, keeping my spine in order, compressing my vertebrae/disks ever so slightly, allowing me to walk erect.  In space, we are under the influence of micro-gravity, where the gravitational force is reduced considerably… on the order of 1/100,000!  So, that “tug” is much, much less.

在地球上,我们的身体每天都是重力的“奴隶”。 我身高六英尺,这是引力让我这样的,它一直沿我的重心作用于地球中心,使脊椎保持秩序,使椎骨/椎间盘微微压紧,使我可以直立行走。 在太空中,我们受到微重力的影响,在这种情况下,重力大大降低了……大约1 / 100,000! 因此,“引力的影响”要少得多。

Our bodies are quite flexible.  Muscles, ligaments, joints… they all have a margin of flexibility.  When we live and work in micro-gravity, the reduced pull on our spine allows us to “grow” a little bit.  It varies with each astronaut, but I grew almost two inches while living on board the International Space Station (ISS) for 5 months in 2007 and again for 15 days in 2010.  The muscles stretch and the disks expand, ever so slightly, leading to a bit of increased height, but also –more often than not– increased back pain.  As the back/spine muscles stretch, the body is placed into a configuration it is not used to, so think of the pain as similar to what happens when you strain a muscle on earth.

我们的身体很灵活。 肌肉,韧带,关节…它们都有一定的弹性。 当我们在微重力中生活和工作时,对脊柱的拉力降低使我们可以“增长”一点。 每位宇航员的情况各不相同,但我在国际空间站(ISS)上生活了5个月(2007年),又在2010年又呆了15天(当时,我又长了将近2英寸)。 身高略有增加,但也常常也会让背部疼痛。 当背部/脊柱肌肉伸展时,身体会处于一种不习惯的状态,因此,可以将疼痛想像成是在地球上拉紧肌肉时所发生的疼痛。

In order to combat this sensitivity, my Russian crew  mates and I would simply compress our spines by pushing with our arms on the ceiling and our feet against the floor.  Doing so for about 3-5 minutes went a long way to relieving any pain we (or at least I) experienced.  While sleeping, the pain could also be present.  If it was bad enough to wake me up, I would unzip the front of my sleeping bag about half-way down to my feet.  Then, since I didn’t weigh anything, I could bend my knees and rest them in the “V” of the sleeping bag’s zipper, putting my body in the “fetal position” I loved so much as a baby. 

为了消除这种敏感性,我的俄罗斯机组人员和我,只需把我们的手臂推到天花板上并将脚踩在地板上来压缩我们的脊椎。 这样做大约3-5分钟对于减轻我们(或至少我)的痛苦大有帮助。 睡觉时,疼痛也可能出现。 如果太疼以至于我无法入睡,我将拉开睡袋的前部,直到脚的一半。 然后,由于我没什么重量,所以我可以弯曲膝盖并将其放在睡袋拉链的“ V”形中,使我的身体像“胎儿一样摆放”。我很喜欢这样。

This helped to stretch the muscles in my lower back very gently, bringing additional relief.  So compressing and stretching the spine muscles and joints gently over time went a long way toward eliminating any soreness.

这有助于非常轻柔地伸展我的下背部肌肉,带来额外的缓解。 因此,随着时间的推移,轻柔地压缩和拉伸脊椎的肌肉和关节对于消除酸痛大有帮助。

@Robert Frost Instructor and Flight Controller at NASA 的回答

In microgravity the spine elongates 1-2% because there is no longer axial loading pushing down, compressing the spine.  The spacing between each pair of vertebrae increases slightly, resulting in a longer spine and thus a taller astronaut.  The downside is that the stretching of the ligaments can cause spasmodic back pain.

在微重力下,脊柱拉长1-2%,因为不再有轴向负荷向下推,也就不会压缩了脊柱。 每对椎骨之间的间距略有增加,导致脊柱更长,宇航员更高。 缺点是韧带的拉伸会引起痉挛性背痛。

【评论区】

@ Giordon Stark Ph.D. in Physics, Licensed Quantum Mechanic

Do the astronauts do a lot of core exercises to counteract this?

宇航员需要核心训练来对抗这些吗?

答主:

They can’t really do anything about it.  If it affects a crew member’s sleep, they’re advised to bring their knees up to their chest, or to use restraint straps or to sleep in the Soyuz couch.  They might also take non-steroidal anti-inflammitaries.

他们对此无能为力。 如果它影响机组人员的睡眠,建议他们将膝盖抬高至胸部,或使用约束带或在联盟号沙发上睡觉。 他们可能还会服用非甾体类抗炎药。

@ Clayton C. Anderson, A NASA astronaut who lived and laughed in space for quite a while!

We do core exercises for weeks prior to launching (if we go to the gym and workout, which many astronauts don’t do regularly) and then again as part of our rehabilitation on Earth.  Exercising the “core” is only a recent thing (within last 5 years), where the astronaut trainers have begun to emphasize its benefits.

在发射前的数周内,我们会进行核心锻炼(如果我们去健身房锻炼,很多宇航员通常不会这样做),我们在重返地球时也会这样做。 锻炼“核心”只是最近的事情(2009年以后),宇航员培训师已开始强调它的好处。

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