@Ben Brown 的回答
One Russian cosmonaut was worried they would be arrested when they landed because they didn’t have passports or visas. The State Department had to apply for a “visa waiver for aliens from outer space” from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. No one was arrested but there were jokes about aliens in the press. (And an immigration officer would have had nothing to check.)
From the NASA oral history of astronaut Norm Thagard, who returned on STS-71 with cosmonauts Gennady Strekalov and Vladimir Dezhurov….
摘自NASA宇航员Norm Thagard的口述历史，后者与宇航员Gennady Strekalov和Vladimir Dezhurov一起乘坐STS-71…
Thagard: I remember that Gennady had a huge concern. He came to me a day or two before the Shuttle came up there, and he says, “We don’t have passports.”
I said, “Well, I don’t think you need them.”
He said, “Well, I think we do.” He said, “I’m worried that they’re going to arrest us because we’ll be coming back and we don’t have passports or visas.”
And I kept trying to allay Gennady. Of course, he comes from a different culture, but maybe knowing what I know of bureaucracy, I should have been worried a little bit along with him or for him, but I couldn’t believe that in a million years they were going to arrest Veloga and Gennady because they arrived in the United States with no passport. I hadn’t even thought about it, but Gennady obviously had been thinking about it quite a lot. 而且我一直在努力消除 Gennady 的担忧。当然，他的文化背景不同，但根据我对官僚主义的了解，我本应该和他在一起或为他担心，但我不敢相信一百万年内，他们会逮捕他Veloga和Gennady只是因为他们没有护照到美国。我并没有想太多，但是 Gennady 显然忧心忡忡。 
New Scientist / 24 June 1995 
For the first time, the US Immigration and Naturalization Service, after some prodding by the US State Department, will officially allow two aliens from space to land in the US next month.
In the latest and most ambitious space shuttle mission, which leaves on Friday, the shuttle Atlantis plans to link with the Russian space station Mir. Atlantis will be launched with seven astronauts on board, and will return eleven days later with eight passengers.
Two Russians, Anatoly Solovyev and Nikolai Budarin, will transfer to Mir while an American, Norman Thagard and two cosmonauts, Vladimir Dezhurov and Grennady Strekalov, who have been on Mir for more than three months, will return to Earth and are scheduled to land in the US on 4 July.
两名俄罗斯人 Anatoly Solovyev 和 Nikolai Budarin, 将转移到和平号，而美国人， Norman Thagard 和两名宇航员 Vladimir Dezhurov 和 Grennady Strekalov 将在和平号上待了三个多月，然后返回地球并计划与7月4日降落在美国。
But it emerged this week that Dezhurov and Strekalov had forgotten to put in an application for US entry visas before their launch from Kazakhstan in March. The US State Department has, for the first and perhaps the last time, asked for a waiver for “aliens from outer space”. The INS says it has agreed not to arrest the cosmonauts for illegal entry into the US.但是在本周出现的状况是， Dezhurov 和 Strekalov 在三月份从哈萨克斯坦出发之前忘记了申请美国入境签证的申请。美国国务院首次（也许也是最后一次）要求豁免“外层空间的外国人”。 INS说，它已同意不逮捕非法进入美国的宇航员。
When they landed, the Russians discovered that the lack of passports was an issue after all. To make their arrival conform to customs regulations, the U.S. State Department had to go to the Immigration and Naturalization Services and apply for a “visa waiver for aliens from outer space.” The visas were obtained without difficulty, though the effort caused more than a few jokes in the American press.当他们着陆时，俄国人发现没有护照毕竟是一个问题。为了使他们的到来符合海关法规，美国国务院必须前往移民和归化服务处，并申请“豁免外层空间外国人的签证”。签证的获得很容易，尽管这种努力在美国媒体上引起了很多笑话。
…from Leaving Earth: Space Stations, Rival Superpowers, And The Quest For Interplanetary Travel by Robert Zimmerman 
……摘自罗伯特·齐默曼（Robert Zimmerman）的《离开地球：太空站，竞争对手的超级大国和对星际旅行的追求》 
Crew members Norman Thagard, Vladimir Dezhurov and Gennady Strekalov…
@ Don Rudolph II Social Studies Teacher
Like Dr. McCoy said in one of the Star Trek movies: “The bureaucratic mentality is the only constant in the universe.”
I remember reading that shuttle crews had their passports stowed in “go bags” (I don’t remember if they were carried on the shuttle, or held by emergency crews) to be sent to the proper country in the event of a TAL landing in Europe or Africa during a launch.
I saw this in a CollectSpace forum post from 2005 from a NASA astronaut:
“I ‘grew up’ in the VITO – Vehicle Integration Test Office. This office is the one which is the eyes, ears, fingers of the crew in their absence, and incorporates the program requirements into the engineering flow at KSC.
“One of the myriad of jobs that the VITT (Vehicle Integration Test Team – which supports the launching) performs is the passport thing. For landing, the VITO chief goes to the primary landing site; the VITT lead (which I was) goes to the secondary site. Should a ‘foreign’ site be used for landing, a team deploys there. These are the folks who meet the crew and who would carry the crew passports.”
“ VITT（支持发射的车辆集成测试团队）执行的众多工作之一是护照。在着陆时，VITO负责人转到主要着陆点； VITT负责人（我当时）去了 如果要使用“外国”站点降落，则应有一个小组在那里部署。这些人会见机组人员并携带机组人员护照。”
They likely also had, or could have had, copies of passports sent with the crews that manned TAL sites. A team from NASA was at the active sites for days leading up to launch, and didn’t leave until they were in space.
There’s also the story about Jack Swigert having to ask for a tax filing extension while on the way to the moon, after being suddenly bumped up to fly on Apollo 13 just days before launch.