为什么NA​SA告诉德国人不要接近阿波罗17号降落地点? NASA担心德国人笨吗?我不知道近距离(20米)接近有多大风险。Why did NASA tell the Germans not to approach the Apollo 17 landing site? Is NASA afraid that the Germans are clumsy? I do not understand how driving up close (20 meters) is a risk.

【翻译自Quora】

@ Ben Brown 的回答

NASA guidelines for preserving historic lunar sites recommend exclusion zones around Apollo 11 and Apollo 17.

NASA的保护月球历史遗址指南建议在阿波罗11号和阿波罗17号周围设置禁区。

NASA released recommendations on how to preserve the historic and scientific value of the Apollo landing sites in 2011. The report did not set mandatory requirements. Rather, its contents were only guidelines for future mission planners.

美国宇航局在2011年发布了有关如何保护阿波罗登陆点的历史和科学价值的建议。该报告未设定强制性要求。相反,其内容仅是未来任务计划者的指南。

The guidelines outlined boundaries around the sites, in particular for Apollo 11 and Apollo 17, the first and last landing locations. Much closer access is permitted for other Apollo landing sites.

指南概述了场地周围的边界,特别是阿波罗11号和阿波罗17号的登陆点和首个登陆点。允许离其他阿波罗登陆点的距离更近。

The Google Lunar X Prize, a competition for robotic lunar rovers, has adopted the NASA guidelines for its competing teams. The $20 million dollar prize includes a $4 million dollar bonus for visiting an Apollo site.[1]

Google Lunar X Prize是机器人月球漫游车竞赛,已经要求其参赛团队采用NASA指南。 2000万美元的奖金包括访问阿波罗降落点的400万美元奖金。[1]

The German team PT Scientists backed by automobile manufacturer Audi started as part of the X Prize but may not launch before the prize’s deadline.[2]

由汽车制造商奥迪支持的德国PT科学家小组也参加了此次X奖,但可能不会在该奖的截止日期之前发射。[2]

The lunar protection guidelines were detailed in a report “NASA’s Recommendations to Space-Faring Entities: How to Protect and Preserve the Historic and Scientific Value of U.S. Government Lunar Artifacts“….[3]

月球保护准则在报告“ NASA对太空实体的建议:如何保护和保留美国政府月球文物的历史和科学价值”中作了详细说明。[3]

EXCLUSION ZONE – APOLLO 11 & 17 SITES RECOMMENDATION:

It is recommended that the Apollo 11 and 17 sites be protected by Artifact Boundaries (AB), and thus restricted from close inspection by visiting robotic systems. The visiting vehicle mobility exclusion boundary will encompass all artifacts (hardware, footprints, etc.) for these sites.

建议对阿波罗11号和17号站点进行人工边界( Artifact Boundaries ,AB)保护,并限制访问机器人系统地进行仔细检查。造访的移动载具也请勿越过边界(硬件,足迹等)。

A. For the Apollo 11 site, the exclusion zone extends 75 m from the lunar module descent stage to encompass all hardware and human activity.

A.对于阿波罗11号站点,禁区从月球模块下降阶段开始延伸75 m,以涵盖所有硬件和人类活动。

B. For the Apollo 17 site, the exclusion zone extends 225 meters from the lunar module descent stage.

B.对于阿波罗17号站点,禁区从月球模块下降阶段开始延伸225米。

RATIONALE:

It is desired to maintain the integrity of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 sites. Since the Apollo 11 site is of great historic significance and yet is fairly contained for the hardware and footprints, landers may touch down over the horizon to protect the site from damage, and mobility systems can approach the site as long as they remain outside the larger mobility exclusion zone.

希望保持阿波罗11号和阿波罗17号站点的完整性。由于Apollo 11站点具有重大的历史意义,而且在硬件和脚印面积方面也很有限制,因此着陆器可能会触及地平线以保护站点免受损坏,并且只要其他的移动载具不越过边界就可任意移动。

The 75 m radius for Apollo 11 ensures that all human activities for that flight are contained within the exclusion zone. It is desirable to also isolate an Apollo J-mission site. Since Apollo 11 was the first site and Apollo 17 the last site, this recommendation preserves and protects each site for future scientific investigations.

阿波罗11号的半径为75 m,可确保该飞行的所有人类活动都包含在禁区内。还需要隔离阿波罗J-mission站点。由于阿波罗11号是第一个站点,阿波罗17号是最后一个站点,因此,此建议保留并保护了每个站点,以供将来进行科学研究。

EXCLUSION ZONE – APOLLO 12, 14-16 SITES RECOMMENDATION:

A. More access should be provided to individual components/artifacts at the Apollo 12, 14-16 sites in order to allow for enhanced scientific and exploration-based assessments. The following exclusion zones have been identified by component/type:

A.应在阿波罗12号,14-16号站点提供更多访问各个组成部分/文物的途径,以便加强基于科学和探索的评估。已按组件/类型标识了以下禁区:

Descent stage – 3 meters buffer distance

Lunar rover (LRV) – 1 meter buffer distance

ALSEP experiments – 1 meter buffer distance

Sampling sites – 1 meter buffer distance

All other artifacts (flag, tools, storage bags, etc.) – 1 meter buffer distance

No restrictions on footprints/LRV tracks outside the identified exclusion zones.

LM的下面部分– 3米缓冲距离
月球车(LRV)– 1米的缓冲距离
ALSEP实验– 1米的缓冲距离
采样地点– 1米缓冲距离
所有其他文物(旗帜,工具,储物袋等)–缓冲距离1米
在确定的禁区外对足迹/ LRV轨道没有限制。

RATIONALE:

The Apollo lunar artifacts are still considered ongoing experiments in space weathering. The identified exclusion zones allow for close inspection of the artifacts while still preserving their scientific integrity. Also note that the Apollo ALSEP retro-reflectors continue to be active scientific experiments and can be easily degraded by particulate and chemical contamination.

阿波罗登月器仍被认为是正在进行的空间风化实验。识别出的禁区允许仔细检查伪影,同时仍保持其科学完整性。还要注意,阿波罗ALSEP后向反射器仍在进行活跃的科学实验,很容易因微粒和化学污染而受到影响。

Should the Apollo Lunar Landing Sites Be Protected? Scientific American

阿波罗登月地点应该受到保护吗?科学美国人

In 2010 X PRIZE officials approached NASA for guidance, asking whether the agency recommended keeping to a particular safe radius around the historic sites or taking any other precautions to preserve them. “Lo and behold, at headquarters people looked at that and said, ‘We don’t have anything to respond to these people,’” recalls Rob Kelso, who was running Lunar Commercial Services at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston at the time.

2010年X PRIZE大奖的官员向NASA寻求指导,询问该机构是否建议在历史遗址周围保持特定的安全半径,或采取任何其他预防措施来保护它们。 “瞧,在总部,人们看着他们说,‘我们没有什么要回应这些人的。’”当时在休斯敦的NASA Johnson Space Center运营Lunar商业服务的Rob Kelso回忆道。

So Kelso led an agency task force that drafted guidelines for all future visitors to lunar historic sites. The team studied how much dust would be kicked up by a spacecraft’s descent engines and found it would be plentiful. “We said they had to land outside of a circle where their ejection plume and dust would not see the site,” Kelso says. The team also decided to treat the sites of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17—the first and last manned lunar landing missions—differently, recommending that no one visit those areas at all. [4]

因此,凯尔索(Kelso)领导了一个机构工作队,为所有未来登月古迹的游客起草了指南。研究小组研究了航天器下降的发动机会喷射多少尘埃,并发现尘埃丰富。凯尔索说:“我们说,他们必须降落在无法看到喷出的羽毛和尘埃的圆圈之外。”该小组还决定分别对待阿波罗11号和阿波罗17号(这是首次和最后一次载人登月任务)的地点,建议人们不要去探访那些地区。 [4]

NASA report and German rover…

Footnotes

[1] Private moon race to follow NASA rules to preserve historic lunar landing sites | collectSPACE

[2] European rocket scientists pledge to make first private Moon landing in 2018

[3] NASA’s Recommendations to Space-Faring Entities: How to Protect and Preserve the Historic and Scientific Value of U.S. Government Lunar Artifacts

[4] https://www.scientificamerican.c…

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