水星号座舱是否是唯一拥有为每个宇航员量身定制座位的载人航天器?Were the Mercury capsules the only manned spacecraft to have seats that were custom fitted to each astronaut?

The Russian Soyuz spacecraft still uses custom Kazbek seat liners fitted to each cosmonaut or astronaut. They are made by sitting in a small tub of quick drying plaster which is shaped to remove any pressure points, creating a mold for the seat.

俄罗斯的联盟号飞船仍然为每个宇航员定制Kazbek坐垫。 它们是通过坐在快干石膏的小浴缸中制成的,该石膏的形状可以消除任何压力点,从而为座椅创造了模具。

In cases where a cosmonaut departs the ISS on a different Soyuz than the one they launched in (like the one year mission) the seat liner can be transferred.

如果发射宇航员和搭载宇航员从空间站返回的联盟号不同(例如一年一次的任务),也可以转移座垫。


Astronaut Clayton Anderson describes the seat fitting process…

宇航员克莱顿·安德森(Clayton Anderson)介绍了座椅装配过程…

“Excuse me, but is this seat taken?”

June 2004

I was given a package containing 3 sets of underwear, 3 pairs of socks and 3 sets of knee-length long johns! I was sent to the bathroom and told to change into the briefs and socks with the long johns on over the briefs. Well, let me tell you that I looked mighty spiffy in my white long underwear with black striped briefs underneath! A definite “fashion faux paux” in the Anderson household!

我得到一个包裹,里面装有3套内裤,3对袜子和3套及膝长约翰裤! 我被送到洗手间,被告知要换上三角裤和袜子,内裤上的长约翰裤要穿。 好吧,让我告诉你,我穿着白色长内裤,下面有黑色条纹内裤的样子看起来很漂亮! 在安德森(Anderson)家中绝对是“ fashion faux paux”!

At that point, a team of about five engineers began to measure me every which way. They took measurements in places that I didn’t even know I had! They next placed me into a plastic mock-up (model) of a Soyuz seat. Imagine yourself playing the position of catcher on a baseball team while lying on your back. That’s how you sit in your Soyuz seat! Even more measurements were taken…and then things got really interesting!

那时,一支工程师团队 他们在我身上所有地方进行了测量! 接下来,他们将我放在联盟号座位的塑料模型中。 想象一下自己躺在背上时在棒球队中扮演接球手的角色。 这就是你坐在联盟号座椅中的方式!然后还需要进行更多测量……然后事情变得非常有趣!

At this point, wearing my fashionable undies, I was directed to another mock-up of a Soyuz seat. This one was more like a really, really tiny bathtub – which they had me lay in (in the “catcher position”) as they poured fast drying plaster around me. The goal, you see, is to form a mold of my entire backside (quick, bring more plaster!!!)…

此时,穿着我的时尚内裤,我被带到另一个联盟号座椅模型。 这个更像是一个非常很小的浴缸-当他们在我周围倒入速干石膏时,他们让我躺在其中(处于“棒球捕手”的位置)。 您所看到的球,是形成整个背面的模具(快速,带上更多的石膏!!)…

eventually leading them to build me a custom seat liner that fits my body contour when I am wearing my Sokol launch and entry spacesuit! This will help me have a snug fit when we experience the dynamic launch loads and, upon return to Earth, the potentially violent ground landing (not water like we did in Apollo) of the Soyuz.

当最终在我的Sokol发射中坐上了为我定制的座椅时,还穿上了宇航服。这将在火箭动态发射更为舒适,并返回地球由于联盟号将降落在地面(不是像我们在阿波罗那样降落在水上),这将有助于我适应。

They poured the upper half of my body first and when it dried a few moments later they took me out of the “tub” and began to carve and smooth the plaster form to relieve any potential pressure points. I climbed in and out several times as we tried to hone in on the final shape. Once that was completed, they poured the lower half of my body (this was easier) and performed the same “smoothing” process leaving us with the full size final mold.

他们先倒入我的身体的上半部,待片刻变干后,他们将我从“盆”中取出,开始雕刻和抹平石膏,以减轻任何潜在的压力点。 当我们尝试磨合最终形状时,我爬进爬出几次。 一旦完成,他们就将我的身体的下半部分倒了(这比较容易),并执行相同的“平滑”过程,使我们拥有了完整尺寸的最终模具。

After changing underwear (into full length long johns this time!) I donned the Sokol suit. It is one-piece, white with blue trim and includes an attached helmet. This was the real deal! I climbed back into the mold, assuming the launch position. They attached my air-cooling line and closed my launch helmet.

换完内衣(这次变成全长长裤!)之后,我穿上了Sokol宇航服。 它是一件式的,白色,带有蓝色装饰,并附带一个头盔。 这是真正的交易! 我爬回模具,推测着发射的位置。 他们连接了我的空气冷却线并关闭了我的发射头盔。

I laid back and relaxed my entire body, trying to imagine myself on the launch pad; trying to sense if there were any places that were feeling uncomfortable. I wiggled here and there, shifted my weight, anything to give me a clue. I wouldn’t want to be stuck in a launch countdown with a feeling similar to that you experience when a rock gets lodged in your shoe! Hopefully very soon it will no longer be a dress rehearsal. [1]

我躺着放松,全身放松,试图在发射台上想象自己。 试图感觉是否有不舒服的地方。 我左右摇摆,变换重心,想找到任何可以给我线索的东西。 我不想在发射倒计时中,感觉就像您将鞋子进了石头一样所经历的感觉一样! 希望很快它将不再是彩排。 [1]

Astronaut Thomas Pesquet being lowered into a seat shaped tub…

宇航员托马斯·佩斯奎特(Thomas Pesquet)被放到一个座形浴缸中…

Plaster is poured in…

石膏倒入…

The plaster is shaped…

石膏成型…

A fit check while wearing a Sokol suit…

穿着Sokol宇航服时进行的合身检查…

Soyuz seat liner molding photo gallery

Seat with liner…

Footnotes

[1] Chapter 6: “Excuse me, but is this seat taken?”

A video in Russian of a Soyuz seat fitting…

Leave a Reply