你觉得2013年电影《地心引力》怎么样?What is your review of Gravity (2013 movie)?

【翻译自Quora】

Garrett Reisman

Garrett Reisman Former NASA Astronaut

的回答:

★★★★

“Gravity” is the most realistic space movie ever.  I mean, that Clooney guy looks just like me!

《地心引力》是有史以来最逼真的太空电影。 我的意思是,克鲁尼人看起来和我一样!

Actually I’ve been besieged with questions about what I thought about this movie ever since it came out.  Just here at work at SpaceX last week I was asked that question about a dozen times a day.  I quipped that “What do you think of “Gravity”?” was becoming every astronaut’s least favorite question, surpassing even “How do you poop in space?”

实际上,自从这部电影问世以来,我一直对我的想法感到困惑。 上周刚在SpaceX上班的时候,我每天大约被问过这个问题十二次。 我打趣说:“ ‘您觉得《太空引力》怎么样?’ 成为了每个宇航员最不喜欢的问题,甚至超过了 ‘您如何在太空便便?’ ”

So, to help me deal with this onslaught, here is my more serious attempt at a movie review:

因此,为了帮助我回复这些问题,以下是我更认真地尝试总结看电影的感受:

First of all, it’s a great movie.  The pace and story was definitely engaging and I think it was the best use of the 3-D IMAX medium to date.  Rather than using the medium as a gimmick, “Gravity” uses it to depict a real environment that is completely alien to most people.

首先,这是一部很棒的电影。 节奏和故事绝对引人入胜,我认为这是迄今为止3-D IMAX媒体的最佳用法。 “引力”不再是一些花招,而是真实影响环境的普通民众不了解的东西。

But the question that most people want me to answer is, how realistic was it? The very fact that the question is being asked so earnestly is a testament to the verisimilitude of the movie.  When a bad science fiction movie comes out, no one bothers to ask me if it reminded me of the real thing.

但是大多数人希望我回答的问题是,它有多现实? 如此认真地提出问题的事实证明了电影的真实性。 当一部糟糕的科幻电影问世时,没有人会问我是否让我想起了真实的事物。

The movie does an outstanding job of capturing what it is like to do a spacewalk – much better than any previous sci fi film.  Having done three spacewalks myself, I can tell you – this is legit.  The visual impact of having nothing but the glass of your helmet between you and the Earth is captured very well. 

这部电影在捕捉太空行走的感觉上做得很出色-比以前的任何科幻电影都要好。 我自己曾三次太空行走,我可以告诉你-电影没错。 在您戴上头盔的眼镜所产生的视觉冲击效果非常好。

(Although the Earth is a bit more sharp and vivid in the movie than the real thing.  Plus there is almost always an interesting land-mass to look at when in reality you spend most of your time looking down at a less-interesting ocean view.)  Also, the movement and physicality of doing a spacewalk is rendered in a very accurate manner.  The ease of starting a motion and the difficulty of stopping it in the vacuum of space is captured accurately in many scenes.

(尽管电影中的地球比真实的电影要更加锐利和生动。再加上几乎总是有一个有趣的陆地群,当您实际上大部分时间都在俯视不那么有趣的海景时, 。)此外,以非常精确的方式呈现进行太空行走的运动和身体状况。 在许多场景中,可以准确地捕获开始运动的难易程度以及在真空中将其停止的困难。

It’s amazing how many things “Gravity” gets right. When Sandra Bullock’s character turns the two valves to shut off oxygen flow to the Soyuz – those are exactly the correct valves to turn.  When she wants to command the orbital maneuvering engine, the CKD, she pushes the correct button which is also labeled correctly.  The interiors of the Soyuz and the International Space Station, are pretty realistic although the various modules are not the correct position. 

令人惊奇的是,《太空引力》正确的东西有多少。 当桑德拉·布洛克(Sandra Bullock)的角色打开两个阀门以切断流向联盟号的氧气时,这些阀门正是要打开的正确阀门。 当她想指挥轨道操纵引擎CKD时,她按下了正确的按钮,该按钮也被正确标记。 联盟号和国际空间站的内部非常逼真,尽管各个模块的位置都不正确。

And the danger of space debris is very real.  During my first spacewalk, my partner, Rick, had to bring in a handle that was stowed on the outside of the station.  When he got it inside he noticed a hole, about a millimeter in diameter, that was shot through the half-inch solid aluminum material by a piece of orbital debris. 

空间碎片的危险是非常现实的。 在我的第一次太空行走中,我的搭档里克(Rick)必须带上一个存放在站外的把手。 当他把它放进去时,他注意到一个直径约1毫米的孔,该孔是由一块轨道碎片穿过半英寸的固态铝材料射出的。

It looked like someone had taken a cocktail straw and shoved it right through the metal.  He looked at me and said, “If that hit one of us…”   There was no need to finish that sentence, since such an event would have been instantly fatal, although I pointed out that he is about 6′ 2″ tall and I am about 5’5″ so it was much more likely to hit him instead of me.

好像有人拿了一根鸡尾酒吸管,将其塞入金属中。 他看了我一眼,说:“如果那击中了我们中的一个……”那句话是没有必要的,因为这样的事件本来是致命的,尽管我指出他的身高约为6’2“ 而且我大约是5’5“,因此打中他的概率更大而不是我。

Ironically, the fact that the movie got so many things correct made it very disconcerting for me when the movie did get several things completely wrong.

具有讽刺意味的是,这部电影许多情景都正确无误的事实使我感到非常不安,这是因为电影确实有几处完全错误。

SPOILER ALERT!!  Stop reading now if you do not want key plot points revealed.

警惕! 如果您不想被剧透,请立即停止阅读。

Yes, there are major violations of the laws of physics and minor violations of typical astronaut behavior in the movie.  The biggest error is that there is no way to go hopping from one spacecraft or space station to another so easily.  It takes tremendous energy and careful planning to change orbits. 

是的,电影中有严重违反物理定律的行为和轻微违反了典型宇航员行为的行为。 最大的错误是没有办法如此轻松地从一个航天器或空间站跳到另一个。 改变轨道需要大量的精力和周密的计划。

For example, as was made so clear in the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy, even with it’s flight computer, a full tank of propellant and hundreds of people on the ground to support, there was no way for the crew Columbia to reach the safety of the International Space Station.  You can’t just look around and see another spacecraft and then get there by simply pointing in the general direction with some soft landing jets and a fire extinguisher. 

例如,在哥伦比亚号航天飞机悲剧发生后就清楚地表明了这一点,即使有飞行计算机,满载的推进剂和数百名地面人员来支持,哥伦比亚号机组人员也无法从国际空间站安全返航。 您不可能只是朝四周一瞟,看到某个航天器,然后用喷气背包朝着大体方向前进就到达了那里。

Another huge error was – there was absolutely no reason for Clooney to sacrifice himself!!!  Once Sandra caught him, he would be just floating there.  A small tug on his tether would send him back to the space station.  And as my wife put it, when you have a hold of George Clooney, only an idiot would let him go.

另一个巨大的错误是-克鲁尼绝对没有理由牺牲自己!!! 一旦桑德拉抓到他,他就将漂浮在那里。 拖拉他的绳索会把他送回空间站。 正如我妻子所说,当您抓住乔治·克鲁尼时,只有白痴才会让他走。

Of course, at the speed he was tumbling by her, there is no way she would have caught him in the first place.  He weighs a few hundred pounds and his suit weighs a few hundred more.  Try lying on a sheet of ice while a 500 pound weight goes flying by and then try to grab a tether attached to that weight while wearing a pair of gloves from a medieval suit of armor.  Not so easy.

当然,以他被她绊倒的速度,她根本不可能抓住他。 他重几百磅,衣服重几百磅。 尝试躺在500磅重的重物飞过的时候躺在冰上,然后尝试戴着一副中世纪盔甲的手套,抓住一根系在重物上的绳索。 没那么容易。

Also, how was Clooney going to beat Anatoly’s space walk record if astronauts apparently don’t wear either a diaper or a cooling garment under their spacesuits?  That would be one smelly suit.  Although I have to admit, that Sandra Bullock looked much sexier in her tank-top and boy shorts than I did when I took off my spacesuit:

另外,如果宇航员显然不穿宇航服,既不穿尿布也不穿凉爽的衣服,克鲁尼又如何打破安纳托利的太空行走记录? 那将是一件臭衣服。 尽管我不得不承认,桑德拉·布洛克(Sandra Bullock)的背心和男孩短裤看起来比我脱掉太空服时性感得多:

Yes, I could go on and on about all the things “Gravity” got wrong.  If you put me in a Chinese spaceship, there is no way I would be able to figure out how to fly it home.  An astronaut that took joyrides around the Hubble Telescope with a jet pack shouldn’t even bother coming home.  And a debris field in low earth orbit would never take out geostationary communication satellites.

是的,我可以继续讨论《地心引力》出错的所有情况。 如果你把我放在中国的宇宙飞船里,我不可能弄清楚如何将它飞回家。 乘坐喷气背包带着哈勃望远镜,绕着哈勃望远镜飞行的宇航员甚至不必费心回家。 而且,低地球轨道上的碎片场永远不会碰上对地静止d的通信卫星。

But who cares?

All of these inaccuracies were done to help advance the plot or to add drama to the film which is exactly the artistic license we should be willing to grant the filmmakers.  This is entertainment, not a documentary.

所有这些不准确之处都是为了帮助改善情节或增加电影戏剧性,而这恰恰是我们应该授予电影制片人的艺术许可。 这是娱乐,不是纪录片。

Recently I was at an event where Neil Armstrong’s son talked about his father’s many wonderful qualities and one bad one – it was very difficult to watch a sci fi movie with his dad.  He would complain if one instrument was out of place on an aircraft’s panel.  He objected to the catapulting of fighters off the Battlestar Galactica – it’s not like they have to build up airspeed to get aloft – why not just plop them out the door? 

最近,我在一次活动中,尼尔·阿姆斯特朗的儿子谈到了父亲的许多优秀特质,以及一个不好的特质–与父亲一起看科幻电影非常困难。 他会抱怨飞机面板上的一种仪器不正确。 他反对将战斗机弹射出Battlestar Galactica,这并不是说他们必须提高空速才能升空-为什么不将他们丢出大门呢?

With all due respect to one of humanity’s greatest individuals, I don’t want to be like that.

出于对人类最伟大的个人之一的尊重,我不想那样做。

It’s just a movie – and a very good one.

【评论区】

@ Frank Heile Physicist, SW Eng, Consciousness & Spirituality Author

You say ” The debris field showing up every 90 minutes is spot on, given the orbital period at the altitude of the International Space Station” – that only make sense if the debris field is always at the same point in space – i.e. not in orbit itself.

您说“给定国际空间站高度的轨道周期,每90分钟就会出现一个碎片场”-仅当碎片场始终位于空间的同一点(即不在轨道上)时才有意义。

For orbiting debris there are two cases:
  1. Either the debris is in an almost circular orbit at the same height as the ISS OR
  2. The debris is in an elliptical orbit that happens to encounter the ISS orbit.

对于轨道碎片,有两种情况:
   1.碎片处于与ISS相同高度的几乎圆形轨道上
   2.碎片位于碰巧遇到国际空间站轨道的椭圆形轨道上。

Case 1: Circular orbit at ISS height:  If the debris is passing the ISS at a high relative speed, it cannot be in an orbit that is too close to the ISS orbit – it would only have low or zero relative speed in that case.  If the debris orbit was in the opposite direction of the ISS or at a significant angle to the ISS orbit then the ISS would encounter the high speed debris twice in each orbit – i.e. every 45 minutes.

情况1:在ISS高度处的圆形轨道:如果碎片以较高的相对速度通过ISS,则其不可能位于离ISS轨道太近的轨道中-在这种情况下,其相对速度将较低或为零。 如果碎片轨道与ISS方向相反或与ISS轨道成较大角度,则ISS将在每个轨道两次(即每45分钟一次)遇到高速碎片。

Case 2: Elliptical orbit: An elliptical orbit that has a perigee near the ISS orbit will have a significantly longer period than 90 minutes and therefore the ISS will not encounter the debris field every orbit.  The ISS will encounter the debris only at a time which is the least common multiple of the two orbital periods. (For example if the ISS is at 90 minutes and the debris is at 100 minutes, then only once every 10 ISS orbits or every 9 debris orbits will they be encounter each other again.)

情况2:椭圆轨道:近地点接近ISS轨道的椭圆轨道的周期明显长于90分钟,因此ISS不会在每个轨道上都遇到碎片场。 国际空间站只会在两个轨道周期中最小公倍数的时间碰到碎片。 (例如,如果国际空间站处于90分钟,而碎片处于100分钟,则每10个国际空间站轨道或每9个碎片轨道只有一次它们会再次相遇。)

The only way to have an elliptical orbit with a 90 minute period is if the perigee is significantly less than the ISS orbit – but in that case the debris will enter the atmosphere and will not ever encounter the ISS again.

绕椭圆轨道运行90分钟的唯一方法是,如果近地点远小于国际空间站的轨道-但在这种情况下,碎片将进入大气层,并且再也不会遇到国际空间站。

Therefore the ISS cannot encounter the same debris field every 90 minutes.

因此,国际空间站不可能每90分钟遇到相同的碎片场。

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