格里菲斯天文台Griffith Observatory

The Griffith Observatory is a facility in Los AngelesCalifornia, sitting on the south-facing slope of Mount Hollywood in Los Angeles‘ Griffith Park. It commands a view of the Los Angeles Basin, including Downtown Los Angeles to the southeast, Hollywood to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. The observatory is a popular tourist attraction with a close view of the Hollywood Sign and an extensive array of space and science-related displays. Admission has been free since the observatory’s opening in 1935, in accordance with the will of Griffith J. Griffith, the benefactor after whom the observatory is named.

格里菲斯天文台位于加利福尼亚州洛杉矶的一个设施中,坐落在洛杉矶格里菲斯公园的好莱坞山朝南的山坡上。 它可以俯瞰洛杉矶盆地的景色,包括东南部的洛杉矶市中心,南部的好莱坞和西南部的太平洋。 天文台是一个受欢迎的旅游胜地,可以欣赏好莱坞标志的近景,并可以欣赏与太空和科学相关的各种展览。 自从天文台于1935年开放以来,就一直免费入场,这是根据恩里费斯·格里菲斯(Griffith J. Griffith)的遗嘱而命名的。

Over 7 million people have been able to view through the 12-inch Zeiss refractor, since the Observatory’s 1935 opening; this is the most people to have viewed through any telescope.[1]

自1935年天文台启用以来,已有超过700万人能够通过12英寸蔡司折射镜进行观测; 这是所有望远镜中被最多人数观察过的。[1]

History

On December 16, 1896, 3,015 acres (12.20 km2) of land surrounding the observatory was donated to the City of Los Angeles by Griffith J. Griffith.[2] In his will Griffith donated funds to build an observatory, exhibit hall, and planetarium on the donated land. Griffith’s objective was to make astronomy accessible by the public, as opposed to the prevailing idea that observatories should be located on remote mountaintops and restricted to scientists.[3]

1896年12月16日,格里菲斯·格里菲斯(Griffith J. Griffith)将天文台周围的3,015英亩(12.20平方公里)土地捐赠给了洛杉矶市。[2] 格里菲斯(Griffith)在遗嘱中捐赠了资金,在捐赠的土地上建造了天文台,展览馆和天文馆。 格里菲斯(Griffith)的目标是使公众能够接触天文学,而不让天文台建造于偏远的山顶上,并且仅限科学家使用。[3]

【哈哈哈hiahia~】

Griffith drafted detailed specifications for the observatory. In drafting the plans, he consulted with Walter Adams, the future director of Mount Wilson Observatory, and George Ellery Hale, who founded (with Andrew Carnegie) the first astrophysical telescope in Los Angeles.[3]

格里菲斯(Griffith)为天文台起草了详细的规格。 在起草计划时,他与威尔逊山天文台的未来主任沃尔特·亚当斯和乔治·埃勒里·黑尔(George Ellery Hale)进行了磋商,后者与安德鲁·卡内基(Andrew Carnegie)一起创立了洛杉矶第一台天体望远镜。[3]

As a Works Progress Administration (WPA) project,[4] construction began on June 20, 1933, using a design developed by architect John C. Austin based on preliminary sketches by Russell W. Porter.[2] The observatory and accompanying exhibits were opened to the public on May 14, 1935, as the country’s third planetarium.[5] In its first five days of operation the observatory logged more than 13,000 visitors. Dinsmore Alter was the museum’s director during its first years.

作为一项工程进度管理(WPA)项目,[4]开始于1933年6月20日,使用的是建筑师约翰·C·奥斯汀根据罗素·W·波特的初步草图设计的设计。[2] 作为该国的第三个天文馆,天文台和伴随的展览于1935年5月14日向公众开放。[5] 在天文台运行后的第一个五天中,天文台就记录了13,000多名访客。 丁斯莫尔·艾特(Dinsmore Alter)是天文台成立的第一年的台长。

The building combines Greek and Beaux-Arts influences, and the exterior is embellished with the Greek key pattern.[6]

该建筑融合了希腊和美术的影响力,其外观采用希腊风格装饰。[6]

During World War II the planetarium was used to train pilots in celestial navigation. The planetarium was again used for this purpose in the 1960s to train Apollo program astronauts for the first lunar missions.

在第二次世界大战期间,天文馆曾被用来训练飞行员进行太空航行。 1960年代,天文馆再次用于此目的,以训练阿波罗计划的宇航员进行首次登月任务。

Renovation and expansion

The observatory closed in 2002 for renovation and a major expansion of exhibit space. It reopened to the public on November 3, 2006, retaining its art deco exterior. The $93 million renovation, paid largely by a public bond issue, restored the building, as well as replaced the aging planetarium dome. The building was expanded underground, with completely new exhibits,[7] a café, gift shop, and the new Leonard Nimoy Event Horizon Theater.[8]

该天文台于2002年暂时关闭,进行翻新和展览空间的大扩展。 它于2006年11月3日重新对公众开放,保留了其装饰艺术的外观。 这项耗资9300万美元的翻新工程,主要是通过发行公共债券来进行的,修复了这座建筑,并更换了老化的天文馆圆顶。 该建筑在地下扩展,提供了全新的展览品,[7]的咖啡厅,礼品店和新的  Leonard Nimoy Event Horizon 剧院[8]。

A wildfire in the hills came dangerously close to the observatory on May 10, 2007.[9]

2007年5月10日,山上的一场野火危险地靠近天文台。[9]

On October 15, 2017, brush fires approached the Observatory Trail, but were extinguished before causing any structural damage.[10]

2017年10月15日,大火接近天文台径,但在造成任何结构性破坏之前已被扑灭。[10]

On July 10, 2018, the Griffith Park Observatory was evacuated after a brush fire burned 25 acres and damaged cars but was extinguished before it damaged any buildings.

2018年7月10日,格里菲斯公园天文台,在一场大火烧毁了25英亩的土地并损坏了汽车后被关闭,但在其摧毁任何建筑物之前被扑灭了。

On May 25, 2008, the Observatory offered visitors live coverage of the Phoenix landing on Mars.[11]

2008年5月25日,天文台为游客提供了凤凰号登陆火星的实时报道。[11]

Ed Krupp is the current director of the Observatory.

Ed Krupp是现任天文台台长。

展示Exhibits

The first exhibit visitors encountered in 1935 was the Foucault pendulum, which was designed to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth.[12] The exhibits also included a 12-inch (305mm) Zeiss refracting telescope in the east dome, a triple-beam coelostat (solar telescope) in the west dome, and a thirty-eight foot relief model of the moon’s north polar region.

1935年遇到的第一个展览品是福柯摆,其目的是演示地球的自转。[12] 展品还包括位于东穹顶的12英寸(305毫米)蔡司折射望远镜,位于西穹顶的三光束定日镜(太阳望远镜)以及月球北极地区的38英尺浮雕模型。

Col. Griffith requested that the observatory include a display on evolution which was accomplished with the Cosmochron exhibit which included a narration from Caltech Professor Chester Stock and an accompanying slide show. The evolution exhibit existed from 1937 to the mid-1960s.

格里菲斯上校要求天文台包括有关进化的展览,这是通过Cosmochron展览完成的,其中包括加州理工学院教授切斯特·斯托克的叙述和幻灯片放映。 演变展品存在于1937年至1960年代中期。

Also included in the original design was a planetarium under the large central dome. The first shows covered topics including the Moon, worlds of the solar system, and eclipses.

原始设计还包括大型中央圆顶下的天文馆。 第一个节目涵盖了包括月球,太阳系世界和日食在内的主题。

The planetarium theater was renovated in 1964 and a Mark IV Zeiss projector was installed.

天文馆剧院在1964年进行了翻新,并安装了Mark IV Zeiss投影仪。

The Café at the End of the Universe, an homage to Restaurant at the End of the Universe, is one of the many cafés run by celebrity chef Wolfgang Puck. One wall inside the building is covered with the largest astronomically accurate image ever constructed (152 feet long by 20 feet (6.1 m) high), called “The Big Picture”,[13] depicting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies; visitors can explore the highly detailed image from within arm’s reach or through telescopes 60 feet (18 m) away.[7] The 1964-vintage Zeiss Mark IV star projector was replaced with a Zeiss Mark IX Universarium.[14] The former planetarium projector is part of the underground exhibit on ways in which humanity has visualized the skies.

向致敬的“宇宙尽头餐馆”的“ 宇宙尽头的咖啡馆 ”,是著名厨师沃尔夫冈·帕克(Wolfgang Puck)经营的众多咖啡馆之一。 建筑物内的一堵墙覆盖着有史以来最大的天文学精确影像(长152英尺乘20英尺(6.1 m)高),称为“大图片”,[13]描绘了处女座星系团; 参观者可以从伸手可及的范围内或通过60英尺(18 m)远的望远镜探索非常详细的图像。[7] 1964年老式的Zeiss Mark IV星空投影仪被Zeiss Mark IX Universarium取代。[14] 以前的天象仪投影仪是地下展览的一部分,展示了人类如何看待天空。

Centered in the Universe features a high-resolution immersive video projected by an innovative laser system developed by Evans and Sutherland Corporation, along with a short night sky simulation projected by the Zeiss Universarium. A team of animators worked more than two years to create the 30-minute program. Actors, holding a glowing orb, perform the presentation, under the direction of Chris Shelton. Tickets for the show are purchased separately at the box office within the observatory. Tickets are sold on a first-come, first-served basis. Children under 5 are free, but are admitted to only the first planetarium show of the day. Only members of the observatory’s support group, Friends Of The Observatory,[15] may reserve tickets for the planetarium show.

以宇宙为中心的是由Evans和Sutherland Corporation开发的创新激光系统投射的高分辨率沉浸式视频,以及蔡司大学投射的短夜空模拟。 一组动画师工作了两年多的时间来创建30分钟的程序。 演员们拿着发光的球,在克里斯·谢尔顿(Chris Shelton)的指导下进行了表演。 演出的门票是在天文台的票房单独购买的。 门票以先到先得的方式出售。 5岁以下的儿童免费,但仅可参加当天的第一场天文馆表演。 只有天文台支持的小组“天文台之友” [15]的成员才能预订天文馆表演的门票。

A model showing the new underground exhibits

The observatory is split up into six sections: The Wilder Hall of the Eye, the Ahmanson Hall of the Sky, the W.M. Keck Foundation Central Rotunda, the Cosmic Connection, the Gunther Depths of Space Hall, and the Edge of Space Mezzanine.

天文台分为六个部分:狂野的眼睛大厅,阿曼森的天空大厅,W.M. 凯克基金会中央圆形大厅,宇宙连接点,太空馆的Gunther深度和太空夹层楼的边缘。

The Wilder Hall of the Eye, located in the east wing of the main level focuses on astronomical tools like telescopes and how they evolved over time so people can see further into space. Interactive features there include a Tesla coil and a “Camera Obscura”, which uses mirrors and lenses to focus light onto a flat surface.

位于主层东侧的Wilder of Eye,侧重于天文望远镜等天文工具,以及它们随着时间的演变如何使人们可以进一步看到太空。 那里的互动功能包括特斯拉线圈和“照相机暗箱”,它使用镜子和透镜将光聚焦到平坦的表面上。

The rotunda ceiling

The Ahmanson Hall of the Sky, located in the west wing, focuses on objects that are normally found in the sky, like the Sun and Moon. The main centerpiece of this section is a large solar telescope projecting images of the Sun, using a series of mirrors called coelostats. Exhibits here include a periodic table of the elements, a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and several alcoves showing exhibits about topics like day and night, the paths of the Sun and stars, the seasons, the phases of the Moon, tides, and eclipses. The W.M. Keck Foundation Central Rotunda features several Hugo Ballin murals on the ceiling and upper walls restored since 1934, a Foucault pendulum that demonstrates the Earth’s rotation, and a small exhibit dedicated to Griffith J. Griffith, after whom the observatory is named.

位于西翼的阿曼森天空大厅专注于通常在天空中发现的物体,例如太阳和月亮。 本部分的主要焦点是一台大型太阳望远镜,使用一系列称为定腔镜的镜子投射太阳图像。 此处的展品包括元素周期表,赫兹-拉塞尔图,以及几个壁橱,这些壁橱展示了诸如昼夜,太阳和星星的路径,季节,月相,潮汐和日食等主题的展览。 W.M. 凯克基金会圆形大厅的特征是,天花板上的几幅雨果·巴林壁画和自1934年以来已修复的上壁,展示了地球自转的福柯钟摆以及专门献给格里菲斯·格里菲斯的小型展览,并由此命名了天文台。

The Cosmic Connection is a 150 ft long hallway connecting the main building and the underground exhibition areas (see below) that depicts the history of the universe, and dramatizes the amount of time that has passed from the Big Bang to the present day using, hundreds of individual pieces of astronomy-related jewelry.

Cosmic Connection是一条150英尺长的走廊,连接主体建筑和地下展览区(见下文),描绘了宇宙的历史,并用天文学相关的珠宝,戏剧化地描述了从大爆炸到今天的时间变化。

The Gunther Depths of Space Hall is the lower level of the observatory, dominated by “The Big Picture,” and scale models of the Solar System. The planets (including dwarf planet Pluto) are shown relative to the size of the sun, which is represented by the diameter of the Leonard Nimoy Event Horizon Theater. Below each planet are listed facts, as well as scales indicating a person’s weight on planets having a solid surface (or weight at an altitude where atmospheric pressure would equal one bar otherwise).

太空馆的Gunther深度是天文台的下层,主要由“大图片”和太阳系的比例模型组成。 显示的是行星(包括矮行星冥王星)相对于太阳的大小,该大小由伦纳德·尼莫伊事件地平线剧院的直径表示。 在每个行星的下面列出了事实,以及表示人在具有固体表面的行星上的重量的标度(或在大气压力等于1 bar的高度处的重量)。

In addition, beneath the Earth’s model, there is a small room containing a large model Earth globe, an older Zeiss planetarium projector, and a set of seismograph rolls, including one tracking room motion caused by occupants. The other rolls are attached to seismographs monitoring movement at the bedrock level, and indicate actual seismic activity. On the north wall of the Depths of Space is “The Big Picture”, a 150 feet (46 m) by 20 feet (6.1 m) photograph (the largest astronomical image in the world) showing a portion of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. This image was taken over the course of 11 nights by the 48-inch Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Mountain. There is also a bronze statue of Albert Einstein sitting on a bench in the Depths of Space. Einstein is holding his index finger about 1 foot (0.30 m) in front of his eyes, to illustrate the visual area of space that is captured in The Big Picture.

此外,在地球模型下方,有一间小房间,里面装有一个大型地球仪地球仪,一台老式的蔡司天文馆放映机和一组地震仪胶卷,其中包括一个由乘员引起的跟踪室运动。【??】 其他轧辊连接到地震仪,监测基岩水平的运动,并指示实际的地震活动。 在太空深处的北墙上是“大图片”,一张150英尺(46 m)乘20英尺(6.1 m)的照片(世界上最大的天文图像)显示了处女座星系团的一部分。 这张照片是在帕洛玛山的48英寸塞缪尔·奥斯钦望远镜在11个晚上拍摄的。 在太空深处的长椅上还有一个阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦的铜像。 爱因斯坦将食指握在眼前约1英尺(0.30 m)处,以说明《大图片》中捕获的视觉空间。

The Edge of Space Mezzanine, which overlooks the Depths of Space Hall, focuses more on astronomy related topics that involve celestial bodies much closer to Earth, with exhibits including meteorite displays, an asteroid impact simulator, a cloud and spark chamber, and a large globe of the Moon, and with telescopes that allow a closer inspection of The Big Picture.

俯瞰太空大厅深度的太空夹层楼边缘,侧重于与天文学有关的主题,涉及距离地球更近的天体,展览包括陨石展示,小行星撞击模拟器,云雾室和大地球仪 月球和望远镜可以更仔细地观察“大图片”。

特斯拉线圈Tesla coil

Tesla coil at the Observatory

On display at the Observatory is a large Tesla coil, dubbed “GPO-1”, one of a pair which were built in 1910 by Earle Ovington.[16][17] Ovington, who would go on to fame as an aviator, ran a company which built high voltage generators for medical X-ray and electrotherapy devices. In public demonstrations of his generators, the spectacular displays drew crowds. Ovington designed the Observatory’s coil to surpass a coil made by Elihu Thomson in 1893 which generated a 64-inch spark. (Nikola Tesla had secretly produced much larger sparks in 1899.) The project caught the attention of an Edison Electric Illuminating Company official, who offered $1,000 if the coil were displayed at an upcoming electrical show in Madison Square Garden, with the stipulation that the machine would produce sparks not less than ten feet long.

天文台展出的是特斯拉大型线圈,名为“ GPO-1”,是厄尔·奥文顿伯爵(Earle Ovington)于1910年制造的一对线圈之一。[16] [17] 奥文顿(Ovington)后来以飞行员身份而声名远扬。他经营着一家公司,该公司制造了用于医用X射线和电疗设备的高压发生器。 在他的发电机的公开示威中,壮观的表演吸引了很多人。 奥文顿设计的天文台线圈超过了以利休·汤姆森(Elihu Thomson)在1893年制造的线圈,产生了64英寸的火花。 (尼古拉·特斯拉(Nikola Tesla)于1899年秘密产生了大得多的火花。)该项目引起了爱迪生电气照明公司一位官员的注意,如果在即将举行的麦迪逊广场花园电气展上展出该线圈,则愿意提供1000美元,并规定机器会产生不少于十英尺长的火花。

The machine, dubbed the Million Volt Oscillator was installed in the band balcony overlooking the arena. At the top of each hour the lights in the main hall were shut off, and sparks would shoot from the copper ball atop the coil to a matching coil 122 inches away, or to a wand held by an assistant. The chief engineer of the General Electric Company estimated that the discharges were at least 1,300,000 volts.

被称为“百万伏振荡器”的机器安装在俯瞰舞台的乐队阳台上。 在每个小时的顶部,主大厅的灯都被关闭,火花将从线圈顶部的铜球射向122英寸远的匹配线圈,或由助手握住的魔杖。 通用电气公司的总工程师估计放电量至少为1,300,000伏。

Ovington, who died in 1936, gave the matching Tesla coils to his old electrotherapy colleague Frederick Finch Strong, who in 1937 donated them to Griffith Observatory. The Observatory had room to exhibit only one of the pair. By this time the machine was missing parts, so Observatory staffer Leon Hall restored it with the notable assistance of Hollywood special effects expert Kenneth Strickfaden who designed the special effects for Frankenstein (1931) among many other movies.

奥文顿(Ovington)于1936年去世,他将匹配的特斯拉线圈交给了他的老电疗疗法同事弗雷德里克·芬奇·斯特朗(Frederick Finch Strong),后者于1937年将它们捐赠给了格里菲斯天文台。 天文台只有一个可以展示一对中的一个。 到了此时,机器已经丢失了零件,因此天文台工作人员Leon Hall在好莱坞特别效果专家Kenneth Strickfaden的显着帮助下对其进行了修复,后者为Frankenstein(1931)设计了许多其他电影的特别效果。

拜访Visiting

Road leading up to the Observatory where additional parking is available.

通往天文台的道路,那里可以提供额外的停车位。

Admission to the building and grounds of Griffith Observatory is free of charge.[18] Planetarium shows at the Observatory are offered eight times a day on weekdays and ten times a day on weekends, of which a nominal fee is charged for admission to the planetarium shows.[19] As long as the weather permits, the Observatory offers free public telescope viewing every night it’s open from 7:00 pm to 9:30 pm. This includes the historic Zeiss Telescope on the roof, and up to four portable telescopes placed outside offering views of visible celestial objects for the night. At 9:30 pm, the doors to the Zeiss dome close, and lines for the portable telescopes outside stop allowing guests into the queues – though they can close earlier on the busier nights. In poor weather, the roof may be closed to the public, but if still accessible under overcast skies, the Zeiss Telescope can still be visited as an exhibit during viewing hours.[19]

格里菲斯天文台的建筑物和场地免费入场。[18] 天文台每天提供八次天文馆表演,周末每天十次,其中象征性的收费是进入天文馆表演。[19] 只要天气允许,天文台每天晚上7:00至9:30开放免费的公共望远镜。 其中包括屋顶上历史悠久的蔡司望远镜,以及放置在室外的多达四台便携式望远镜,可在夜间看到可见的天体。 晚上9:30,Zeiss穹顶的门关闭,外面的便携式望远镜的线停下来,让客人进入队列-尽管他们可以在繁忙的夜晚更早关闭。 在恶劣的天气下,屋顶可能不对公众开放,但如果仍然在阴暗的天空下仍可进入,则蔡司望远镜仍可在观看时间内作为展览品被参观。[19]

There is a small parking lot next to the Observatory, plus more spaces along Western Canyon Rd, which require payment of $8–10 an hour, depending on the season. During busier times, the roads can get congested and limit access to the top. [a][20] The Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT) operates daily low cost DASH Observatory public bus service from the Vermont/Sunset Metro Red Line station to the Observatory, including a stop at the nearby Greek Theater, which can be used as a free parking area when there are no concerts.[21] The observatory is closed on Mondays.[18]

天文台旁有一个小型停车场,西峡谷路沿线还有更多车位,视季节而定,每小时需要支付8-10美元。 在繁忙的时候,道路会变得拥挤,限制了通往山顶的通道。 [a] [20]洛杉矶交通运输部(LADOT)每天提供低成本的DASH天文台公共巴士服务,从佛蒙特州/日落地铁红线站到天文台,包括在附近的希腊剧院停靠,都可以使用 没有演唱会时作为免费停车区。[21] 天文台逢星期一关闭。[18]

There are photo opportunities and scenery at and around the Observatory, with views of the Pacific Ocean, the Hollywood Sign and Downtown Los Angeles.

天文台及其周围有很多适合照相的风景,并享有太平洋,好莱坞标志和洛杉矶市中心的景色。

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