茂纳凯亚天文台Mauna Kea Observatories

The Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) are a number of independent astronomical research facilities and large telescope observatories that are located at the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of HawaiʻiUnited States. The facilities are located in a 525-acre (212 ha) special land use zone known as the “Astronomy Precinct”, which is located within the 11,228-acre (4,544 ha) Mauna Kea Science Reserve.[1] The Astronomy Precinct was established in 1967 and is located on land protected by the Historical Preservation Act for its significance to Hawaiian culture.

冒纳凯阿天文台(MKO)是位于美国夏威夷大岛上的冒纳凯阿山顶的许多独立天文研究设施和大型望远镜天文台。 这些设施位于一个占地525英亩(212公顷)的特殊土地使用区,称为“天文学区”,位于茂纳基亚自然保护区11,228英亩(4,544公顷)内。[1] 天文区成立于1967年,位于受历史保护法保护的土地上,这对夏威夷文化具有重要意义。

The location is near ideal because of its dark skies from lack of light pollution, good astronomical seeing, low humidity, high elevation of 4,205 meters (13,796 ft), position above most of the water vapor in the atmosphere, clean air, good weather and low latitude location.[2

该位置接近理想位置,因为它因缺乏光污染而天黑,天文观测良好,湿度低,海拔4,205米(13,796英尺),处于大气中大部分水蒸气之上,空气清洁,天气晴朗, 低纬度位置。[2]

由来与背景Origin and background

After studying photos for NASA‘s Apollo program that contained greater detail than any ground-based telescope, Gerard Kuiper began seeking an arid site for infrared studies.[3][4] While he first began looking in Chile, he also made the decision to perform tests in the Hawaiian Islands. Tests on Maui‘s Haleakalā were promising, but the mountain was too low in the inversion layer and often covered by clouds. On the “Big Island” of Hawaiʻi, Mauna Kea is considered the highest island mountain in the world. While the summit is often covered with snow, the air is extremely dry.[3] 

在为NASA的阿波罗计划研究了比任何地面望远镜都包含更多细节的照片之后, Gerard Kuiper 开始寻找干旱地点进行红外研究。[3] [4] 当他第一次开始在智利寻找时,他还决定在夏威夷群岛进行测试。 对毛伊岛的哈雷阿卡拉(Haleakalā)的测试很有希望,但该山的反演层太低,常常被云层覆盖。 在夏威夷的“大岛”上,冒纳凯阿被认为是世界上最高的岛屿山。 尽管山顶经常被雪覆盖,但空气却极为干燥。[3]

Kuiper began looking into the possibility of an observatory on Mauna Kea. After testing, he discovered the low humidity was perfect for infrared signals. He persuaded Hawaiʻi Governor John A. Burns to bulldoze a dirt road to the summit where he built a small telescope on Puʻu Poliʻahu, a cinder cone peak.[3][5][6] The peak was the second highest on the mountain with the highest peak being holy ground, so Kuiper avoided it.[7]:25 Next, Kuiper tried enlisting NASA to fund a larger facility with a large telescope, housing and other needed structures. NASA, in turn decided to make the project open to competition. Professor of physics, John Jefferies of the University of Hawaii placed a bid on behalf of the university.[3][8][9] Jefferies had gained his reputation through observations at Sacramento Peak Observatory.

Kuiper 开始研究在莫纳克亚山上建立天文台的可能性。 经过测试,他发现低湿度非常适合红外信号。 他说服夏威夷州州长约翰·A·伯恩斯(John A. Burns)推开通往山顶的一条土路,在那里他在煤渣锥峰Pu’u Poliʻahu上建造了一个小型望远镜。[3] [5] [6] 高峰是山上第二高的山峰,最高峰是圣地,所以 Kuiper 避开了这个地方。[7]接下来, Kuiper 试图邀请美国国家航空航天局(NASA)资助大型望远镜,房屋和其他所需结构的大型设施。 反过来,NASA决定使该项目向竞争开放。 夏威夷大学物理学教授约翰·杰弗里斯(John Jefferies)代表该大学出价。[3] [8] [9] 杰佛瑞斯(Jefferies)通过萨克拉曼多山顶天文台的观测获得了声誉。

The proposal was for a two-meter telescope to serve both the needs of NASA and the university. While large telescopes are not ordinarily awarded to universities without well-established astronomers, Jefferies and UH were awarded the NASA contract, infuriating Kuiper, who felt that “his mountain” had been “stolen” from him.[3][10] Kuiper would abandon his site (the very first telescope on Mauna Kea) over the competition and begin work in Arizona on a different NASA project. After considerable testing by Jefferies’ team, the best locations were determined to be near the summit at the top of the cinder cones.

该提议是为两米望远镜提供服务,以满足NASA和大学的需求。 虽然通常不会将大型望远镜授予没有杰出天文学家大学,但杰弗里斯和UH却被授予NASA合同,这激怒了 Kuiper ,后者认为“他的山”已被他“偷走”。[3] [10] Kuiper 将在比赛中放弃自己的站点(莫纳克亚河上的第一台望远镜),并开始在亚利桑那州开展另一个NASA项目。 经过Jefferies团队的大量测试后,确定最佳位置是在煤渣锥顶部的山顶附近。

Testing also determined Mauna Kea to be superb for nighttime viewing due to many factors, including the thin air, constant trade winds and being surrounded by sea. Jefferies would build a 2.24 meter telescope with the State of Hawaiʻi agreeing to build a reliable, all weather roadway to the summit. Building began in 1967 and first light was seen in 1970.[3]

测试还确定了由于许多因素,包括稀薄的空气,持续的顺风和被海包围,Mauna Kea在夜间观看方面表现出色。 杰弗里斯将与夏威夷州建造一座2.24米的望远镜,并同意建造一条通往峰会的可靠,全天候的道路。 始建于1967年,并于1970年首次亮相。[3]

Other groups began requesting subleases on the newly accessible mountaintop. By 1970, two 24 in (0.6 m) telescopes had been constructed by the United States Air Force and Lowell Observatory. In 1973, Canada and France agreed to build the 3.6 m CFHT on Mauna Kea.[11] However, local organizations started to raise concerns about the environmental impact of the observatory. This led the Department of Land and Natural Resources to prepare an initial management plan, drafted in 1977 and supplemented in 1980.

其他团体开始在新近到达的山顶上请求转租。 到1970年,美国空军和洛厄尔天文台建造了两架24英寸(0.6 m)望远镜。 1973年,加拿大和法国同意在冒纳凯阿河上建造3.6 m CFHT。[11] 但是,当地组织开始对天文台的环境影响表示关注。 这促使国土资源部准备了最初的管理计划,该计划于1977年起草,并于1980年进行了补充。

In January 1982, the University of Hawaiʻi Board of Regents approved a plan to support the continued development of scientific facilities at the site.[12] In 1998, 2,033 acres (823 ha) were transferred from the observatory lease to supplement the Mauna Kea Ice Age Reserve. The 1982 plan was replaced in 2000 by an extension designed to serve until 2020: it instituted an Office of Mauna Kea Management,[13] designated 525 acres (212 ha) for astronomy, and shifted the remaining 10,763 acres (4,356 ha) to “natural and cultural preservation”. This plan was further revised to address concern expressed in the Hawaiian community that a lack of respect was being shown toward the cultural value the mountain embodied to the region’s indigenous people.[12]

1982年1月,夏威夷大学董事会批准了一项计划,以支持该站点继续发展科学设施。[12] 1998年,从天文台租赁中转移了2,033英亩(823公顷),以补充Mauna Kea冰河时期保护区。 1982年的计划在2000年被一项延期至2020年的计划所取代:它设立了一个冒纳凯阿山脉管理处,[13]指定为525英亩(212公顷)用于天文学,并将剩余的10,763英亩(4,356公顷)转移至“ 自然和文化保护”。 对该计划作了进一步修订,以解决夏威夷社区表达的关切,即人们对该山对该地区土著人民所体现的文化价值缺乏尊重。[12]

As of 2012, the Mauna Kea Science Reserve has 13 observation facilities, each funded by as many as 11 countries. It is one of the world’s premier observatories for optical, infrared, and submillimeter astronomy, and in 2009 was the largest measured by light gathering power.[14] There are nine telescopes working in the visible and infrared spectrum, three in the submillimeter spectrum, and one in the radio spectrum, with mirrors or dishes ranging from 0.9 to 25 m (3 to 82 ft).[15] In comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope has a 2.4 m (7.9 ft) mirror, similar in size to the UH88, now the second smallest telescope on the mountain.[15]

截至2012年,冒纳凯阿山脉自然保护区拥有13个观测设施,每个设施由多达11个国家资助。 它是全球最主要的光学,红外和亚毫米天文观测站之一,并且在2009年是用聚光力测量的最大观测站。[14] [9]有九台望远镜在可见光和红外光谱中工作,三台在亚毫米波光谱中,一台在无线电频谱中,其镜子或碟形镜的范围为0.9至25 m(3至82英尺)。[15] 相比之下,哈勃太空望远镜有一个2.4 m(7.9 ft)镜,大小与UH88类似,后者现在是山上第二小的望远镜。[15]

From left-to-right: United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, Caltech Sub-Millimeter Observatory (closed 2015), James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Smithsonian Sub-Millimeter Array, Subaru Telescope, W.M. Keck Observatory (I & II), NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini North Telescope

争议Controversies

Planned new telescopes, including the Thirty Meter Telescope, have attracted controversy due to their potential cultural and ecological impact.[16][17] The multi-telescope “outrigger” extension to the Keck telescopes, which required new sites, was eventually canceled.[18] Three or four of the mountain’s 13 existing telescopes must be dismantled over the next decade with the TMT proposal to be the last area on Mauna Kea on which any telescope would ever be built.[19]

计划中的新望远镜,包括“三十米望远镜”,由于其潜在的文化和生态影响而引起了争议。[16] [17] 凯克望远镜的多望远镜“支腿”扩展需要新的站点,但最终被取消。[18] TMT提议 在接下来的十年中,必须拆除山上现有的13架望远镜中的三到四架,好在那些地方建立新的望远镜。[19]

管理Management

The Reserve was established in 1968, and is leased by the State of Hawaiʻi’s Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR).[20] The University of Hawaiʻi manages the site[20] and leases land to several multi-national facilities, which have invested more than $2 billion in science and technology.[1] The lease expires in 2033 and after that 40 of 45 square kilometers (25 of 28 square miles) revert to the state of Hawaii.[19]

该保护区成立于1968年,由夏威夷州土地和自然资源部(DLNR)出租。[20] 夏威夷大学管理着该场址[20],并将土地出租给几个跨国机构,这些机构在科学和技术上的投资已超过20亿美元。[1] 租约于2033年到期,此后45平方公里中的40平方公里(28平方英里中的25)恢复为夏威夷州。[19]

位置Location

The altitude and isolation in the middle of the Pacific Ocean makes Mauna Kea one of the best locations on earth for ground-based astronomy. It is an ideal location for submillimeter, infrared and optical observations. The seeing statistics show that Mauna Kea is the best site in terms of optical and infrared image quality; for example, the CFHT site has a median seeing of 0.43 arcseconds.

1119/5000太平洋中部的海拔高度和孤立性使莫纳克亚山成为地球上最适合天文学的地点之一。它是亚毫米,红外和光学观察的理想场所。可见的统计数据显示,就光学和红外图像质量而言,冒纳凯阿火山是最佳地点;例如,CFHT站点的中位数为0.43弧秒。

Accommodations for research astronomers are located at the Onizuka Center for International Astronomy (often called Hale Pōhaku), 7 miles (11 km) by unpaved steep road from the summit at 9,300 feet (2,800 m) above sea level.

研究天文学家的住所位于鬼冢国际天文学中心(通常称为黑尔波哈库),距离海拔9300英尺(2,800 m)的山顶有7英里(11公里)的未铺设陡峭路。

An adjacent visitor information station is located at 9,200 feet (2,800 m). The summit of Mauna Kea is so high that tourists are advised to stop at the visitor station for at least 30 minutes to acclimate to atmospheric conditions before continuing to the summit, and scientists often stay at Hale Pōhaku for eight hours or more before spending a full night at observatories on the summit, with some telescopes requiring observers to spend one full night at Hale Pōhaku before working at the summit.

相邻的游客问讯处位于9,200英尺(2,800 m)处。冒纳凯阿火山的山顶是如此之高,建议游客在进入山顶之前至少停留30分钟以适应大气条件,然后再继续爬向山顶。科学家们经常在黑尔波卡(HalePōhaku)停留八小时或更长时间,然后再花整整一整天。晚上在山顶的天文台观测,一些望远镜要求观察员在山顶Palehaku呆一整夜,然后在山顶上工作。

反对与抗议Opposition and protests

Main article: Opposition to the Mauna Kea Observatories

In Honolulu, the governor and legislature, enthusiastic about the development, set aside an even larger area for the observatory after the initial project, causing opposition on the Big Island, in the city of HiloNative Hawaiians (kānaka ʻōiwi) believed the entire site was sacred and that developing the mountain, even for science, would spoil the area. Environmentalists were concerned about rare native bird populations and other citizens of Hilo were concerned about the sight of the domes from the city. Using town hall meetings, Jefferies was able to overcome opposition by weighing the economic advantage and prestige the island would receive.[3] There has been substantial opposition to the Mauna Kea observatories that continues to grow.

在檀香山,州长和立法机关对这一发展充满热情,在最初的项目完成后就为天文台预留了更大的面积,在希洛市的大岛上引起了反对。 夏威夷土著人(kānakaʻōiwi)相信整个遗址都是神圣的,即使是出于科学目的,开发这座山也会破坏该地区。 环保主义者担心稀有的本地鸟类种群,希洛的其他公民担心城市圆顶的景象。 Jefferies通过市政厅会议,通过权衡经济优势和岛屿信誉而克服了反对。[3] 冒纳凯阿天文台一直在继续遭到反对。

[24] Over the years, the opposition to the observatories may have become the most visible example of the conflict science has encountered over access and use of environmental and culturally significant sites.[25] Opposition to development grew shortly after expansion of the observatories commenced. Once access was opened up by the roadway to the summit, skiers began using it for recreation and objected when the road was closed as a precaution against vandalism when the telescopes were being built. Hunters voiced concerns, as did the Hawaiian Audubon Society who were supported by Governor George Ariyoshi.[7]:56

多年来,对天文台的反对可能已经成为冲突科学在获取和使用对环境和文化有重要意义的地点方面遇到的最明显的例子。[25] 在扩大天文台后不久,反对发展的势头就增加了。 一旦通往山顶的道路开放了通道,滑雪者便开始将其用作娱乐活动,并且在建造新望远镜时关闭道路以防遭到破坏。 猎人表达了关切,夏威夷州奥杜邦协会也对此表示了关切,州长乔治·阿里义吉得到了支持。[7]:56

The Audubon Society objected to further development on Mauna Kea over concerns to habitat of the endangered Palila, a species endemic to only specific parts of this mountain. The bird is the last of the finch billed honeycreepers existing on the island. Over 50% of native bird species had been killed off due to loss of habitat from early western settlers or the introduction of non-native species competing for resources. Hunters and sportsmen were concerned that the hunting of feral animals would be affected by the telescope operations.[26] 

奥杜邦协会(Audubon Society)反对在冒纳凯阿(Mauna Kea)上进一步发展,因为人们担心濒临灭绝的帕利拉(Palila)的栖息地,该物种仅在该山的特定地区流行。 这只鸟是岛上现存的雀科蜜honey中的最后一只。 由于早期西方定居者丧失了栖息地或引入了争夺资源的非本地物种,超过50%的本地鸟类被杀死。 猎人和运动员担心,望远镜操作会影响野性动物的狩猎。[26]

A “Save Mauna Kea” movement was inspired by the proliferation of telescopes, with opposition believing development of the mountain to be sacrilegious.[27] Native Hawaiian non-profit groups, such as Kahea, whose goals are the protection of cultural heritage and the environment, oppose development on Mauna Kea as a sacred space to the Hawaiian religion.[28] Today, Mauna Kea hosts the world’s largest location for telescope observations in infrared and submillimeter astronomy. The land is protected by the United States Historical Preservation Act due to its significance to Hawaiian culture, but still allowed development.[29]

望远镜的激增激发了“ Save Mauna Kea”运动的兴起,反对派则认为该山的发展是牺牲品。[27] 夏威夷原住民非营利组织,例如Kahea,其目标是保护文化遗产和环境,反对发展冒纳凯阿火山作为夏威夷宗教的神圣空间。[28] 如今,莫纳克亚山(Mauna Kea)拥有全球最大的红外和亚毫米天文望远镜观测位置。 由于该土地对夏威夷文化具有重要意义,因此受到美国历史保护法的保护,但仍可以开发。[29]

2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake

A number of the telescopes sustained minor damage during the October 15, 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake and aftershocks. JCMT was performing an inclinometry run and recorded the earthquake on its tilt sensors.[30] Both CFHT and W. M. Keck Observatory were operational and back online by October 19.[31][32]

在2006年10月15日的基霍洛湾地震和余震中,许多望远镜遭受了轻微损坏。 JCMT正在执行测斜仪运行并将地震记录在其倾斜传感器上。[30] CFHT和W. M. Keck天文台都已投入运营,并于10月19日恢复在线。[31] [32]

Sunset over Mauna Kea Observatories

Leave a Reply