Kitt Peak National Observatory

The Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) is a United States astronomicalobservatory located on Kitt Peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the ArizonaSonoran Desert on the Tohono O’odham Nation, 88 kilometers (55 mi) west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona. With 22 optical and two radio telescopes, it is the largest, most diverse gathering of astronomical instruments in the northern hemisphere.[1] The observatory is administered by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).

基特峰国家天文台(KPNO)是美国天文台,位于亚利桑那州图森西南偏西88公里(55英里),位于托霍诺·奥德姆国家/地区的亚利桑那州-索诺兰沙漠中的昆兰山脉的基特峰。 它是22个光学望远镜和两个射电望远镜,是北半球最大,最多样化的天文仪器集合。[1] 天文台由国家光学天文台(NOAO)管理。

基础信息General information

Kitt Peak was selected by its first director, Aden B. Meinel, in 1958 as the site for a national observatory under contract with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and was administered by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. The land was leased from the Tohono O’odham under a perpetual agreement. The second director (1960 to 1971) was Nicholas U. Mayall.

1958年,基特·匹克(Kitt Peak)被其第一任馆长亚丁·迈尼尔(Aden B. Meinel)选为与美国国家科学基金会(NSF)签约的国家天文台所在地,并由大学天文研究协会管理。该土地是根据永久协议从Tohono O’odham租赁的。第二任导演(1960年至1971年)是Nicholas U. Mayall。

In 1982 NOAO was formed to consolidate the management of three optical observatories — Kitt Peak; the National Solar Observatory facilities at Kitt Peak and Sacramento PeakNew Mexico; and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The observatory sites are under lease from the Tohono O’odham Nation at the amount of a quarter dollar per acre yearly, which was overwhelmingly approved by the Council in the 1950s. In 2005, the Tohono O’odham Nation brought suit against the National Science Foundation to stop further construction of gamma ray detectors in the Gardens of the Sacred Tohono O’odham Spirit I’itoi, which are just below the summit.[2]

1958年,基特·匹克(Kitt Peak)被其第一任馆长亚丁·迈尼尔(Aden B. Meinel)选为与美国国家科学基金会(NSF)签约的国家天文台所在地,并由大学天文研究协会管理。该土地是根据永久协议从Tohono O’odham租赁的。第二任导演(1960年至1971年)是Nicholas U. Mayall。 1982年,NOAO成立,以巩固对三个光学观测站Kitt Peak和Kitt Peak的管理。新墨西哥州基特峰和萨克拉曼多峰的国家太阳能天文台设施;智利的Cerro Tololo美洲天文台。天文台站点以每年每英亩四分之一美元的价格从Tohono O’odham国家租用,这在1950年代得到了安理会的绝对批准。 2005年,Tohono O’odham国家对国家科学基金会提起诉讼,要求停止在山顶下方的神圣Tohono O’odham Spirit I’itoi花园中进一步建造伽马射线探测器。[2]

The largest optical instruments at KPNO are the Mayall 4 meter telescope and the WIYN 3.5 meter telescope; there are also several two- and one-meter class telescopes. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope is currently[3] the largest solar telescope in the world and the largest unobstructed reflector (it doesn’t have a secondary mirror in the path of incoming light). The ARO 12m Radio Telescope is also at the location.

KPNO上最大的光学仪器是Mayall 4米望远镜和WIYN 3.5米望远镜。 还有几米两米和一米级的望远镜。 麦克马斯·皮尔斯太阳望远镜目前是[3]世界上最大的太阳望远镜,也是最大的无障碍反射镜(在入射光的路径上没有辅助反射镜)。 ARO 12m射电望远镜也位于该位置。

Kitt Peak is famous for hosting the first telescope (an old 91 cm reflector) used to search for near-Earth asteroids, and calculating the probability of an impact with planet Earth.[4]

基特峰(Kitt Peak)以拥有第一台用来搜寻近地小行星的望远镜(一个旧的91厘米反射镜)而闻名,并计算了撞击地球的可能性。[4]

Kitt Peak hosts an array of programs for the public to take part in, including:[5]

基特峰(Kitt Peak)举办了一系列供公众参与的计划,其中包括:[5]

  • Daytime tours, speaking about the history of the observatory as well as touring a major research telescope.
  • The Nightly Observing Program (NOP), which allows visitors to arrive in the late afternoon, watch the sunset, and use binoculars and telescopes to view the cosmos.
  • Additionally, there is the Overnight Telescope Observing Program (OTOP). This program allows for a one-on-one, full night of observing using any of the visitor center’s telescopes. Guests may choose to do DSLR imaging, CCD imaging, or simply take in the sights with their eye to the telescope.
  • 白天游览,谈论天文台的历史以及参观主要的研究望远镜。
  • 夜间观测计划(NOP),使游客可以在傍晚到达,观看日落,并使用双筒望远镜和望远镜观察宇宙。
  • 此外,还有隔夜望远镜观测计划(OTOP)。 该程序允许使用访客中心的任何望远镜进行一对一的整夜观察。 客人可以选择进行DSLR成像,CCD成像,或者只是用望远镜注视景点。

Kitt Peak’s Southeastern Association for Research and Astronomy (SARA) Telescope was featured in the WIPB-PBS documentary, “Seeing Stars in Indiana”. The project followed SARA astronomers from Ball State University to the observatory and featured time-lapse images from various points around Kitt Peak.[6][7]

基普·匹克的东南研究与天文学协会(SARA)望远镜在WIPB-PBS纪录片“印第安纳州的繁星”中有特别报道。 该项目跟踪了鲍尔州立大学(Ball State University)的SARA天文学家到天文台的观测,并拍摄了基特峰(Kitt Peak)附近各个地点的时移图像。[6] [7]

A major project in the 2010s at Kitt Peak is the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument instrument for the Mayall.

2010年代在基特峰的一个主要项目是用于Mayall的暗能量光谱仪。

Discoveries

Some examples of the discoveries using KNPO telescopes. This is a very small listing, with many thousands of asteroids discovered by the Spacewatch telescopes.

使用KNPO望远镜进行发现的一些例子。 这是一个非常小的清单,太空观察望远镜发现了成千上万的小行星。

In 1976 the Mayall Telescope was used to discover methane ice on planet Pluto.[8]

1976年,Mayall望远镜用于在冥王星行星上发现甲烷冰。[8]

The 90 cm Spacewatch telescope was used to discover the Kuiper belt body, 2000 Varuna in the year 2000.[9] This was discovered by an astronomer noticing the slow moving object in a blink comparison.[9]

90厘米的太空观察望远镜是在2000年发现  Kuiper belt 天体2000 Varuna的[9]。 这是由天文学家在眨眼的比较中注意到缓慢移动的物体发现的。[9]

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