Roque de los Muchachos 天文台,Paranal 天文台,Calar Alto 天文台

Roque de los Muchachos 天文台

Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los MuchachosORM) is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands. The observatory site is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, based on nearby Tenerife. ORM is part of the European Northern Observatory.

Roque de los Muchachos Observatory  是一个天文台,位于加那利群岛拉帕尔玛岛加拉菲亚市。 天文台站点由位于附近特内里费岛(Tenerife)的加纳里亚斯天文学研究所(Instituto deAstrofísicade Canarias)运营。 ORM是欧洲北部天文台的一部分。

The seeing statistics at ORM make it the second-best location for optical and infrared astronomy in the Northern Hemisphere, after Mauna Kea ObservatoryHawaii. The site also has some of the most extensive astronomical facilities in the Northern Hemisphere; its fleet of telescopes includes the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, the world’s largest single-aperture optical telescope as of July 2009,[1] the William Herschel Telescope (second largest in Europe), and the adaptive optics corrected Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope.

ORM的观测数据使其成为北半球仅次于夏威夷 Mauna Kea Observatory 的光学和红外天文学的最佳地点。 该地点还拥有北半球最广泛的一些天文设施。 它的望远镜队包括10.4 m的Gran Telescopio Canarias,这是截至2009年7月的世界上最大的单孔径光学望远镜,[1] William Herschel望远镜(欧洲第二大),以及经过自适应光学校正的瑞典1米太阳望远镜 。

The observatory was established in 1985, after 15 years of international work and cooperation of several countries with the Spanish island hosting many telescopes from Britain, The Netherlands, Spain, and other countries. The island provided better seeing conditions for the telescopes that had been moved to Herstmonceux by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, including the 98 inch aperture Isaac Newton Telescope (the largest reflector in Europe at that time). When it was moved to the island it was upgraded to a 100-inch (2.54 meter), and many even larger telescopes from various nations would be hosted there.

该天文台成立于1985年,经过多个国家15年的国际合作与合作,西班牙岛拥有来自英国,荷兰,西班牙和其他国家的许多望远镜。 该岛为皇家格林威治天文台转移到赫斯特蒙索的望远镜提供了更好的观看条件,其中包括98英寸孔径的艾萨克·牛顿望远镜(当时欧洲最大的反射镜)。 当它移到岛上时,它升级为100英寸(2.54米),并且来自世界各国的许多更大的望远镜都将被安置在那里。

History

The building of the observatory traces to 1969, with the start of the Northern Hemisphere Observatory project.[2] After ten years of research on the site there is big international agreement with several nations to establish an international Observatory at La Palma.[3]

北半球天文台项目开始之初,天文台的建造可追溯到1969年。[2] 经过对该地点的十年研究,与几个国家达成了一项大型国际协议,以在拉帕尔玛建立国际天文台。[3]

The former Royal Greenwich Observatory at Herstmonceux, which lead to a search for a better location for the large telescopes

Herstmonceux的前皇家格林威治天文台,在为大型望远镜寻找更好的位置

The observatory began operation around 1984 with the Isaac Newton Telescope, which was moved to La Palma from the Royal Greenwich Observatory site at Herstmonceux Castle in SussexEngland. The move was troubled, and it is widely recognized that it would have been cheaper to build a new telescope on-site rather than to move an existing one.

天文台于1984年左右开始使用Isaac Newton望远镜运行,该望远镜从英国萨塞克斯郡Herstmonceux城堡的皇家格林威治天文台站点移至拉帕尔玛岛。 这一举动很麻烦,众所周知,在现场建造新的望远镜比移动现有的望远镜要便宜。

The observatory was first staffed by representatives from SpainSwedenDenmark and the United Kingdom. Other countries which became involved later include GermanyItalyNorway, the NetherlandsFinlandIceland, and the United States.

该天文台首先配备了来自西班牙,瑞典,丹麦和英国的代表。 后来加入的其他国家包括德国,意大利,挪威,荷兰,芬兰,冰岛和美国。

The observatory was officially inaugurated on June 29, 1985, by the Spanish royal family and six European heads of state. Four helicopter pads were built at the observatory to allow the dignitaries to arrive in comfort. The observatory has expanded considerably over time, with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope opened in 1987, the Nordic Optical Telescope in 1988 and several smaller solar or specialized telescopes; the Galileo National Telescope opened in 1998 and the Gran Telescopio Canarias opened in 2006, with its full aperture in 2009.[citation needed]

该天文台由西班牙王室和六位欧洲国家元首于1985年6月29日正式揭幕。 天文台建造了四个直升机停机坪,以使贵宾能够舒适地到达。 随着420万威廉·赫歇尔望远镜于1987年启用,北欧光学望远镜于1988年以及几台较小的太阳或专业望远镜的使用,该天文台已经有了长足的发展。 Galileo国家望远镜于1998年启用,Gran Telescopio Canarias于2006年启用,并于2009年全面开放。[引用文献]

A fire on the mountainside in 1997 damaged one of the gamma-ray telescopes, but subsequent fires in September 2005 and August 2009[4] did no serious damage to buildings or telescopes.

1997年在山坡上发生的大火损坏了其中一台伽玛射线望远镜,但随后在2005年9月和2009年8月发生的大火[4]对建筑物或望远镜没有造成严重损害。

In 2016, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory signed an agreement to host Cherenkov Telescope Array’s northern hemisphere array at the ORM.

2016年,加纳里亚斯天文望远镜研究所和切伦科夫望远镜阵列天文台签署协议,将切伦科夫望远镜阵列的北半球阵列托管在ORM。

In 2016, the observatory was announced as the second-choice location for the Thirty Meter Telescope, in the event that the Mauna Kea site is not feasible.[5]

2016年,在莫纳克亚(Mauna Kea)站点不可行的情况下,该天文台被宣布为三十米望远镜的第二选择地点。[5]

Paranal Observatory

Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO); it is located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile on Cerro Paranal at 2,635 m (8,645 ft) altitude, 120 km (70 mi) south of Antofagasta. By total light-collecting area, it is the largest optical-infrared observatory in the Southern Hemisphere; worldwide, it is second to the Mauna Kea Observatory on Hawaii.

Paranal Observatory 是欧洲南部天文台(ESO)运营的天文台。它位于智利北部阿塔卡马沙漠的塞罗帕拉纳尔(Cerro Paranal),海拔2635 m(8,645 ft),在安托法加斯塔以南120 km(70 mi)。按总集光面积计,它是南半球最大的光学红外天文台;在全球范围内,它仅次于夏威夷的莫纳克亚山天文台。

The Very Large Telescope (VLT), the largest telescope on Paranal, is composed of four separate 8.2 m (320 in) telescopes. In addition, the four main telescopes can combine their light to make a fifth instrument, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Four auxiliary telescopes of 1.8 m (71 in) each are also part of the VLTI to make it available when the main telescopes are being used for other projects.

超大型望远镜(VLT)是Paranal上最大的望远镜,由四个单独的8.2 m(320英寸)望远镜组成。此外,四个主要望远镜可以将它们的光线组合在一起,制成第五个仪器,即超大型望远镜干涉仪(VLTI)。 VLTI还包括四台1.8 m(71英寸)的辅助望远镜,以便在将主要望远镜用于其他项目时可以使用。

The site also houses two survey telescopes with wide fields of view, the 4.0 m (160 in) VISTA and the 2.6 m (100 in) VLT Survey Telescope for surveying large areas of the sky; and two arrays of small telescopes called NGTS and SPECULOOS which are dedicated to searching for exoplanets.

该地点还装有两台视野开阔的勘测望远镜,即4.0 m(160英寸)的VISTA和2.6 m(100英寸)的VLT测量望远镜,用于测量大范围的天空;还有两排称为NGTS和SPECULOOS的小型望远镜,专用于搜索系外行星。

Two major new facilities are under construction nearby: the southern part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescope (not owned by ESO) will be sited in the grounds 10 km south-east of Paranal; while ESO’s future E-ELT will be on the nearby peak of Cerro Armazones 20 km east of Paranal, and will share some of the base facilities.

附近有两个主要的新设施正在建设中:切伦科夫望远镜阵列伽马射线望远镜的南部(不归ESO所有)将位于Paranal东南10公里处。而ESO的未来E-ELT将位于Paranal以东20公里处的Cerro Armazones附近的山峰上,并将共享一些基本设施。

Calar Alto Observatory

The Calar Alto Observatory (Centro Astronómico Hispano en Andalucía or “Spanish Astronomical Centre in Andalusia”) is an astronomical observatory located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter-high (7,113 ft) mountain in the Sierra de Los Filabres range.[2]

Calar Alto Observatory位于西班牙Almeria省的Calar Alto,Sierra de los Filabres 山脉上的一座2168米的山上。

Until 2018, Calar Alto was owned and operated jointly by the German Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, and the Spanish Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) in Granada. It was named Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán / Deutsch-Spanisches Astronomisches Zentrum, “German–Spanish Astronomical Centre”. In 2019, the Council of Andalusia takes over the German partner, sharing the observatory with the Spanish National Research Council through its head institute, IAA-CSIC.

直到2018年,Calar Alto一直由海德堡的德国马克斯·普朗克天文学研究所和格拉纳达的西班牙安达卢西亚天体物理学研究所(IAA-CSIC)共同拥有和运营。 它被称为“西班牙天文中心”,“西班牙-西班牙天文学中心”。 2019年,安大路西亚理事会接管了德国合作伙伴,并通过其总部机构IAA-CSIC与西班牙国家研究理事会共享了天文台。

Calar Alto telescopes are used for a broad range of observations, from objects in the Solar System[2] to cosmology (the Alhambra and CALIFA surveys), including the search for exoplanets (the CARMENES survey).

从太阳系中的天体[2]到宇宙学(阿罕布拉和CALIFA调查),包括寻找系外行星(CARMENES调查),Calar Alto望远镜用于广泛的观测。

The 3.5-meter telescope is the largest telescope in mainland Europe, though there are three larger telescopes on the Spanish island of La Palma at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory. The minor planet 189202 Calar Alto, discovered by Felix Hormuth at Starkenburg Observatory in 2003, was named in honor of the observatory site.[2]

3.5米望远镜是欧洲大陆最大的望远镜,尽管在西班牙拉克帕岛(Roque de los Muchachos天文台)上有三台较大的望远镜。 Felix Hormuth于2003年在Starkenburg天文台发现了小行星189202 Calar Alto,以纪念该天文台而得名。[2]

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