格林威治皇家天文台Royal Observatory, Greenwich

【机器翻译自wiki】

The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG;[1] known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich ObservatoryRGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known for the fact that the prime meridian passes through it, and thereby gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time. The ROG has the IAU observatory code of 000, the first in the list.[2] ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen’s House and Cutty Sark are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich.[1]

格林威治皇家天文台(ROG; [1]从1957年至1998年被称为旧皇家天文台,当时工作中的皇家格林威治天文台从格林威治迁至赫斯特蒙索)是一座天文台,位于格林威治公园的山丘上,俯瞰着 泰晤士河。 它在天文学和航海历史中起着重要作用,并且以本初子午线穿过它并因此将其命名为格林威治标准时间这一事实而闻名。 ROG的IAU天文台代码为000,在列表中排名第一。[2] ROG,国家海事博物馆,女王之家和卡蒂萨克号都被指定为格林威治皇家博物馆。[1]

The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren.[3] At that time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to “apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation.” He appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal. The building was completed in the summer of 1676.[4] The building was often called “Flamsteed House”, in reference to its first occupant.

天文台由查理二世国王于1675年委托,奠基仪式于8月10日举行。 该站点由克里斯托弗·雷恩爵士(Sir Christopher Wren)选择。[3] 当时,国王还设立了皇家天文学家的职位,担任天文台台长,并“以最精确的谨慎和勤勉尽责来纠正天体运动表及其位置” 固定的星星,以便找出非常理想的经度,以完善航海艺术。” 他任命约翰·弗拉姆斯特德(John Flamsteed)为第一位皇家天文学家。 该建筑于1676年夏天完成。[4] 这座建筑通常被称为“弗拉门斯特之家”,指的是它的第一位居住者。

The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, and the Greenwich site is now maintained almost exclusively as a museum, although the AMAT telescope became operational for astronomical research in 2018.

20世纪上半叶,天文台的科学工作分阶段转移到其他地方,尽管AMAT望远镜已于2018年投入运行,但格林威治站点现在几乎一直作为博物馆维护。

历史

  • 1675 – 22 June, Royal Observatory founded.
  • 1675 – 10 August, construction began.
  • 1714 Longitude Act established the Board of Longitude and Longitude rewards. The Astronomer Royal was, until the Board was dissolved in 1828, always an ex officio Commissioner of Longitude.
  • 1767 Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne began publication of the Nautical Almanac, based on observations made at the Observatory.
  • 1818 Oversight of the Royal Observatory was transferred from the Board of Ordnance to the Board of Admiralty; at that time the observatory was charged with maintaining the Royal Navy’s Marine chronometers.
  • 1833 Daily time signals began, marked by dropping a Time ball.
  • 1838 – Sheepshanks equatorial, a 6.7 inch (170 mm) aperture refracting telescope installed.[5]
  • 1893 – The 28-inch Great refractor installed.[6]
  • 1899 The New Physical Observatory (now known as the South Building) was completed.
  • 1924 Hourly time signals (Greenwich Time Signal) from the Royal Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February.
  • 1931 Yapp telescope ordered
  • 1948 Office of the Astronomer Royal was moved to Herstmonceux.
  • 1957 Royal Observatory completed its move to Herstmonceux, becoming the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO). The Greenwich site is renamed the Old Royal Observatory.
  • 1990 RGO moved to Cambridge.
  • 1998 RGO closed. Greenwich site is returned to its original name, the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and is made part of the National Maritime Museum.
  • 2011 The Greenwich museums, including the ROG, become collectively the Royal Museums Greenwich.
  • 1675年-6月22日,皇家天文台成立。
  • 1675年– 8月10日,开始建造。
  • 1714年《经度法》设立了经度和经度奖励委员会。在1828年委员会解散之前,皇家天文学家一直是经度当然的专员。
  • 1767年,天文学家Royal Nevil Maskelyne根据天文台的观测结果开始出版《航海年鉴》。
  • 1818年,皇家天文台的监督从军械局移交给了金钟委员会;当时,天文台负责维护皇家海军的海军天文钟表。
  • 1833年开始出现每日时间信号,其标志是放下时间球。
  • 1838年–羊腿赤道仪安装了6.7英寸(170毫米)孔径的折射望远镜。[5]
  • 1893年–安装了28英寸的大型折射镜。[6]
  • 1899年,新的物理天文台(现称为南楼)建成。
  • 1924年2月5日,英国皇家天文台的每小时时间信号(格林威治时间信号)首次广播。
  • 1931年订购了亚普望远镜
  • 1948年皇家天文学家办公室迁至赫斯特蒙索。
  • 1957年,皇家天文台完成了向赫斯特蒙索的迁徙,成为皇家格林威治天文台(RGO)。格林威治站点更名为旧皇家天文台。
  • 1990年RGO移居剑桥。
  • 1998 RGO关闭。格林威治站点恢复为原始名称,即格林威治皇家天文台,并成为国家海事博物馆的一部分。
  • 2011年格林威治博物馆(包括ROG)共同成为格林威治皇家博物馆。

地点Site

There had been significant buildings on this land since the reign of William I.[7] Greenwich Palace, on the site of the present-day Maritime Museum, was the birthplace of both Henry VIII and his daughters Mary I and Elizabeth Ithe Tudors used Greenwich Castle, which stood on the hilltop that the Observatory presently occupies, as a hunting lodge. Greenwich Castle was reportedly a favourite place for Henry VIII to house his mistresses, so that he could easily travel from the Palace to see them.[8]

自威廉一世统治以来,这片土地上已有许多建筑物。[7] 如今的海事博物馆所在地的格林威治宫是亨利八世及其女儿玛丽一世和伊丽莎白一世的出生地。 都铎王朝使用格林威治城堡作为狩猎小屋,格林威治城堡坐落在天文台目前占领的山顶上。 据报道,格林威治城堡是亨利八世最爱安置情妇的地方,因此他可以轻松地从皇宫出发去看望他们。[8]

In 1676 Flamsteed’s house on Greenwich hill was completed, the Royal astronomer’s place of operation.[9]

1676年,弗拉姆斯蒂德在格林威治山上的房子完工,这是皇家天文学家的所在地。[9]

建立Establishment

Laser projected from the observatory marking the Prime Meridian line

从天文台投射的激光标记了本初子午线

Laser at night

The establishment of a Royal Observatory was proposed in 1674 by Sir Jonas Moore who, in his role as Surveyor-General of the Ordnance, persuaded King Charles II to create the observatory, with John Flamsteed installed as its director.[10] The Ordnance Office was given responsibility for building the Observatory, with Moore providing the key instruments and equipment for the observatory at his own personal cost. Flamsteed House, the original part of the Observatory, was designed by Sir Christopher Wren, probably assisted by Robert Hooke, and was the first purpose-built scientific research facility in Britain. It was built for a cost of £520 (£20 over budget) out of largely recycled materials on the foundations of Duke Humphrey’s Tower, the forerunner of Greenwich Castle, which resulted in the alignment being 13 degrees away from true North, somewhat to Flamsteed’s chagrin.

乔纳斯·摩尔爵士(Jonas Moore)爵士于1674年提议建立皇家天文台,他以军械总测量师的身份说服查理二世国王创建了天文台,并任命约翰·弗拉姆斯泰德(John Flamsteed)为主任。[10] 军械办公室负责建造天文台,摩尔负责为天文台提供关键仪器和设备,但需自费。 弗拉芒斯蒂德楼(Flamsteed House)是天文台的原始部分,由克里斯托弗·雷恩(Christopher Wren)爵士设计,可能得到罗伯特·胡克(Robert Hooke)的协助,是英国第一个专门建造的科学研究设施。 它是由格林威治城堡的先驱汉弗莱塔(Duke Humphrey’s Tower)的基础上大量回收的材料制成的,成本为520英镑(比预算高20英镑),导致路线与真正的北面相距13度,与Flamsteed’s 恼。

Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building. They were of unusual design, each with a pendulum 13 feet (3.96 metres) in length mounted above the clock face, giving a period of four seconds and an accuracy, then unparalleled, of seven seconds per day.

Moore捐赠了两个由Thomas Tompion建造的时钟,它们安装在建筑物主要房间20英尺高的Octagon Room中。 它们的设计非同寻常,每个钟摆的高度都在表盘上方,高度为13英尺(3.96米),持续时间为4秒,每天的准确性达到了空前的7秒。

The original observatory housed the astronomer royal, his assistant and his family as well as the scientific instruments to be used by Flamsteed in his work on stellar tables. Over time the institution became a more established institution, thanks to its links to long-lasting government boards (the Board of Ordnance and Board of Longitude) and oversight by a Board of Visitors, founded in 1710 and made up of the President and Members of the council of the Royal Society.[11] By the later 18th century it incorporated additional responsibilities such as publishing the Nautical Almanac, advising government on technical matters, disseminating time, making meteorological and magnetic observations and undertaking astrophotography and spectroscopy. The physical site[12] and the numbers of staff[13] increased over time as a result.

最初的天文台容纳了皇家天文学家,他的助手和他的家人,以及弗拉姆斯特德在恒星表上使用的科学仪器。 随着时间的流逝,该机构成为了一个更成熟的机构,这要归功于它与长期存在的政府委员会(军械委员会和经度委员会)的联系以及由访客委员会监督的访客委员会的成立,该委员会由总统和会员组成,成立于1710年 皇家学会理事会。[11] 到18世纪后期,它合并了其他职责,例如出版《航海年鉴》,就技术问题向政府提供建议,传播时间,进行气象和磁学观测以及进行天文摄影和光谱学。 结果,物理站点[12]和工作人员[13]随时间增加。

格林威治子午线Greenwich Meridian

British astronomers have long used the Royal Observatory as a basis for measurement. Four separate meridians have passed through the buildings, defined by successive instruments.[14] The basis of longitude, the meridian that passes through the Airy transit circle, first used in 1851, was adopted as the world’s Prime Meridian at the International Meridian Conference on 22 October 1884 (voting took place on 13 October).[15] Subsequently, nations across the world used it as their standard for mapping and timekeeping. The Prime Meridian was marked by a brass (later replaced by stainless steel) strip in the Observatory’s courtyard once the buildings became a museum in 1960, and, since 16 December 1999, has been marked by a powerful green laser shining north across the London night sky.

英国天文学家长期以来一直使用皇家天文台作为测量基础。 四个独立的子午线穿过建筑物,由连续的仪器定义。[14] 经度的基础是1851年首次使用,经过了Airy过境圈的子午线在1884年10月22日的国际子午线会议上被选为世界本初子午线(投票于10月13日举行)。[15] 随后,世界各国将其用作绘制地图和计时的标准。 当建筑物于1960年成为博物馆后,天文台的子午线便以天文台院子里的黄铜(后来用不锈钢代替)带子为标志,并且自1999年12月16日起,便以强大的绿色激光打标着整个伦敦之夜 天空。

Since the first triangulation of Great Britain in the period 1783–1853, Ordnance Survey maps have been based on an earlier version of the Greenwich meridian, defined by the transit instrument of James Bradley. When the Airy circle (5.79 m to the east) became the reference for the meridian, the difference resulting from the change was considered small enough to be neglected. When a new triangulation was done between 1936 and 1962, scientists determined that in the Ordnance Survey system the longitude of the international Greenwich meridian was not 0° but 0°00’00.417″ (about 8 m) East.[16] Besides the change of the reference line, imperfections of the surveying system added another discrepancy to the definition of the origin, so that the Bradley line itself is now 0°00’00.12″ East of the Ordnance Survey Zero Meridian (about 2.3m).[17]

自从1783年至1853年对英国进行首次三角剖分以来,兵器测量图一直以詹姆士·布拉德利的过境仪所定义的格林威治子午线的早期版本为基础。 当艾里圆(向东5.79 m)成为子午线的参考点时,这种变化产生的差异被认为很小,可以忽略不计。 当在1936年至1962年之间进行新的三角测量时,科学家们确定在军械测量系统中,国际格林威治子午线的经度不是东经0°,而是东经0°00’00.417“(约8 m)。[16] 在参考线的位置上,测量系统的不完善之处使原点的定义增加了另一个差异,因此,布拉德利线本身现在位于兵器测量零子午线以东0°00’00.12“(约2.3m)。[17]

This old astronomical prime meridian has been replaced by a more precise prime meridian. When Greenwich was an active observatory, geographical coordinates were referred to a local oblate spheroid called a datum known as a geoid, whose surface closely matched local mean sea level. Several datums were in use around the world, all using different spheroids, because mean sea level undulates by as much as 100 metres worldwide. Modern geodetic reference systems, such as the World Geodetic System and the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, use a single oblate spheroid, fixed to the Earth’s gravitational centre.

这个古老的天文本初子午线已被更精确的本初子午线所取代。 当格林威治是活跃的天文台时,地理坐标被称为局部扁圆球体,称为基准面,称为大地水准面,其表面与局部平均海平面高度匹配。 由于平均海平面在全球范围内波动了多达100米,因此在全球范围内使用了多个基准面,均使用了不同的椭球体。 现代大地参考系,例如世界大地测量系统和国际陆地参考系,都使用固定在地球重力中心的单个扁球体。

The shift from several local spheroids to one worldwide spheroid caused all geographical coordinates to shift by many metres, sometimes as much as several hundred metres. The Prime Meridian of these modern reference systems is 102.5 metres east of the Greenwich astronomical meridian represented by the stainless steel strip, which is now 5.31 arcseconds West. The modern location of the Airy Transit is 51°28′40.1″N 0°0′5.3″W[18]

从几个局部球体到一个全球性球体的转换导致所有地理坐标偏移了许多米,有时甚至是数百米。 这些现代参考系统的本初子午线位于以不锈钢带为代表的格林威治天文子午线以东102.5米处,该子午线现在以西5.31弧秒。 空中通道的现代位置是51°28′40.1″ N 0°0′5.3″ W [18]

International time from the end of the 19th century until UT1 was based on Simon Newcomb‘s equations, giving a mean sun about 0.18 seconds behind UT1 (the equivalent of 2.7 arcseconds) as of 2013; it coincided in 2013 with a meridian halfway between Airy’s circle and the IERS origin51°28′40.1247″N 0°0′2.61″W.[19]

从19世纪末到UT1的国际时间是根据西蒙·纽康(Simon Newcomb)的方程式得出的,截至2013年,平均太阳比UT1慢0.18秒(相当于2.7弧秒)。 它在2013年与艾里圆和IERS原点之间的子午线重合:51°28′40.1247″ N 0°0′2.61″W。[19]

格林威治标准时间Greenwich Mean Time

Main article: Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was until 1954 based on celestial observations made at Greenwich, and later on observations made at other observatories. GMT was formally renamed as Universal Time in 1935, but is still commonly referred to as GMT. It is now calculated from observations of extra-galactic radio sources.

格林威治标准时间(GMT)直到1954年才根据格林威治天体的观测结果,后来根据其他天文台的观测结果进行。 GMT在1935年正式更名为“世界标准时间”,但仍通常被称为GMT。 现在,它是根据银河外无线电源的观测结果计算得出的。

The observatory is noted as the home of the prime meridian and Greenwich mean time.[20]

天文台是本初子午线和格林威治标准时间的所在地。[20]

A key instrument for determining time was the Airy Transit Circle, which was used primarily from 1851 to 1938.[21] It was agreed in 1884 that the “meridian line marked by the cross-hairs in the Airy Transit Circle eyepiece would indicate 0° longitude and the start of the Universal Day” according to RMG.[21] The time is determined by marking the time a star of known location would pass through the aimpoint of the telescope.[21] In a reverse case, this type of instrument was also used for making star charts.[21]

确定时间的关键工具是Airy Transit Circle,它主要用于1851年至1938年。[21] [21]根据RMG的说法,在1884年达成共识,“在Airy Transit Circle目镜中以十字线标记的子午线将指示0°经度和世界日的开始。” [21] 该时间是通过标记已知位置的恒星通过望远镜的瞄准点的时间来确定的。[21] 相反,这种仪器也用于制作星图。[21]

The stars whose position was known precisely enough for being used for time determination, were called “clock stars.”[21]

位置精确到足以用于确定时间的恒星被称为“钟星”。[21]

格林威治时间球Greenwich Time Ball

The red time ball of Greenwich was established in 1833, and is noted as a public time signal.[22] The time ball in modern times is normally in a lowered position, then starting at 12:55 PM, the ball begins to rise, then at 12:58 it reaches the top; at 1 PM the ball drops.[23]

格林威治红色时球成立于1833年,被称为公共时间信号。[22] 现代时间球通常处于较低的位置,然后从12:55 PM开始,球开始上升,然后在12:58到达顶部。 下午1点时球掉落。[23]

To help mariners at the port and others in line of sight of the observatory to synchronise their clocks to GMT, Astronomer Royal John Pond installed a very visible time ball that drops precisely at 1 p.m. (13:00) every day atop the observatory in 1833. Initially it was dropped by an operator; from 1852 it was released automatically via an electric impulse from the Shepherd Master Clock.[24] The ball is still dropped daily at 13:00 (GMT in winter, BST in summer).[25]

为了帮助港口的水手和天文台视线内的其他人员将时钟与格林尼治标准时间同步,天文学家皇家约翰·庞德(Royal John Pond)安装了一个非常明显的时球,该球正好在下午1点掉落。 (13:00)在1833年的天文台上的每一天。 从1852年起,它便通过牧羊人主钟的电脉冲自动释放。[24] 每天仍然在13:00掉球(冬天是格林尼治标准时间,夏天是BST)。[25]

The original time ball system was built by Messrs Maudslay and Field, and cost 180 pounds.[26] The five-foot diameter ball was made of wood and leather.[26] In the original ball system, it was hoisted by a rope up from the Octagon room, and there was catch at the top to hold it.[26] This could then be triggered by hand, while observing the time on an astronomical month clock, that was regulated to the mean solar time.[26]

最初的计时球系统是由Maudslay and Field先生制造的,成本为180磅。[26] 直径五英尺的球是用木头和皮革制成的。[26] 在原始的滚珠系统中,它是用绳子从八角形房间上吊起来的,顶部有一个挂钩将其固定。[26] 然后可以手动触发,同时在天文月钟上观察时间,该时间被调节为平均太阳时间。[26]

By dropping the ball, the public, mariners, and clock makers could get then get a time signal by viewing it from afar.[26] The ball drop would be repeated at 2 pm also if possible.[26]

通过丢球,公众,水手和钟表制造者就可以从远处观看来获得时间信号。[26] 如果可能的话,也将在下午2点重复落球。[26]

A reason why 12 noon was not chosen, was because astronomers at the observatory would record when the Sun crossed the meridian on that day, so were busy at that time.[27]

之所以没有选择中午12点,是因为天文台的天文学家会记录当天太阳越过子午线的时间,所以当时很忙。[27]

In rare occasions where the ball could get stuck due to icing or snow, and if the wind was too high it would not be dropped.[26] [28]In 1852, it was established to distribute a time signal by the telegraph wires also.[29]

在极少数情况下,球可能由于结冰或积雪而卡住,并且如果风过高,它也不会掉落。[26] [28] 1852年,它也建立了用电报线分配时间信号的方法。[29]

The time ball was extremely popular with the public, chronometers, railways, mariners, and there was a petition to have another time ball established in Southampton also.[30]

时间球在公众,计时码表,铁路,水手中非常受欢迎,并且有请愿书也要在南安普敦建立另一个时间球。[30]

1890s

Dome of the Great Equatorial overlooking Greenwich park

俯瞰格林威治公园的大赤道圆顶

21st century view of the Altazimuth Pavilion

Altazimuth亭的21世纪景观

The 1890s marked the addition of a new larger refractor, the 28 inch Grubb in the Great Equatorial Dome. Because the new telescope was longer than the old Great refractor, the new dome had to be bigger; thus the famous “onion dome” that expands beyond the diameter of the turret was established. For the tricentennial, it was revitalized with a fiberglass dome;the old one made of paper mache and iron had been taken down.

1890年代标志着在赤道大圆顶中增加了一个新的更大的折射镜,即28英寸的格鲁布(Grubb)。 因为新望远镜比旧的大折射镜更长,所以新的圆顶必须更大。 这样就建立了著名的“洋葱圆顶”,它的直径超过了炮塔的直径。 在三百周年纪念中,它用玻璃纤维穹顶恢复了活力;旧的用纸浆和铁制成的穹顶被拆除了。

The telescope was installed by 1893, with 28 inch diameter glass doublet lens made by Grubb from Chance of Birmingham glass.[31] The new dome was made by T. Cooke and Sons.[31] This replaced a smaller drum shaped dome.[31]

这架望远镜是在1893年安装的,由伯明翰玻璃制造厂的格鲁布(Grubb)制造,直径为28英寸的玻璃双合透镜。[31] 新的圆顶是由T. Cooke and Sons制造的。[31] 这取代了较小的鼓形圆顶。[31]

The 1890s also saw the construction of the Altazimuth Pavillion, completed in 1896 and designed by William Crisp.[32] In 1898 the Christie Enclosure was established to house sensitive magnetic instruments that had been disrupted by the use of iron at the main facility.[33]

1890年代还建造了Altazimuth Pavillion,该建筑于1896年完成,由William Crisp设计。[32] 1898年,克里斯蒂(Christie)外壳被建立起来,用来容纳敏感的磁性仪器,这些仪器在主要设施中因使用铁而受到干扰。[33]

The Observatory underwent an attempted bombing on 15 February 1894. This was possibly the first “international terrorist” incident in Britain.[34] The bomb was accidentally detonated while being held by 26-year-old French anarchist Martial Bourdin in Greenwich Park, near the Observatory building. Bourdin died about 30 minutes later. It is not known why he chose the observatory, or whether the detonation was intended to occur elsewhere. Novelist Joseph Conrad used the incident in his novel The Secret Agent.[35]

天文台于1894年2月15日遭到未遂轰炸。这可能是英国的第一起“国际恐怖分子”事件。[34] 该炸弹是由26岁的法国无政府主义者Martial Bourdin在天文台大楼附近的格林威治公园举行的意外爆炸。 布尔丁在大约30分钟后死亡。 不知道他为什么选择天文台,或者是否打算在其他地方发生爆炸。 小说家约瑟夫·康拉德(Joseph Conrad)在他的小说《秘密特工》中使用了这一事件。[35]

Early 20th century

Standard lengths on the wall of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London – 1 yard (3 feet), 2 feet, 1 foot, 6 inches (1/2-foot), and 3 inches. The separation of the inside faces of the marks is exact at an ambient temperature of 60 °F (16 °C) and a rod of the correct measure, resting on the pins, will fit snugly between them.[36][37]

伦敦格林威治皇家天文台墙的标准长度– 1码(3英尺),2英尺,1英尺,6英寸(1/2英尺)和3英寸。 [60]在环境温度为60°F(16°C)的情况下,标记内表面之间的间距是精确的,并且正确尺寸的杆将紧贴在销钉上。[36] [37]

For major parts of the twentieth century, the Royal Greenwich Observatory was not at Greenwich, because it moved to Herstmonceux in 1957. The last time that all departments were there was 1924: in that year electrification of the railways affected the readings of the Magnetic and Meteorological Departments, and the Magnetic Observatory moved to Abinger. Prior to this, the observatory had had to insist that the electric trams in the vicinity could not use an earth return for the traction current.[38]

在20世纪的大部分时间里,格林威治皇家天文台不在格林威治,因为它于1957年移至赫斯特蒙索。所有部门的最后一次出现是在1924年:那年,铁路电气化影响了磁和磁的读数。 气象部门和电磁天文台移至阿宾格。 在此之前,天文台不得不坚持认为附近的电车不能使用接地回路作为牵引电流。[38]

After the onset of World War II in 1939, many departments were temporarily evacuated out of range of German bombers, to Abinger, Bradford on AvonBristol,[39] and Bath,[40] and activities in Greenwich were reduced to the bare minimum.

1939年第二次世界大战爆发后,许多部门暂时撤离了德国轰炸机的范围,转移到阿宾格,雅芳河畔的布拉德福德,布里斯托尔[39]和巴斯[40],格林威治的活动减少到最低限度 。

On 15 October 1940, during the Blitz, the Courtyard gates were destroyed by a direct bomb hit. The wall above the Gate Clock collapsed, and the clock’s dial was damaged. The damage was repaired after the war.[41]

在1940年10月15日的闪电战中,四合院大门被直接炸弹炸毁。 门钟上方的墙壁倒塌了,并且钟的表盘已损坏。 战争结束后,损失得到了修复。[41]

在 Herstmonceux 的皇家天文台The Royal Observatory at Herstmonceux

Domes of the old Herstmonceux site

After the Second World War, in 1947, the decision was made to move the Royal Observatory to Herstmonceux Castle[42] and 320 adjacent acres (1.3 km²), 70 km south-southeast of Greenwich near Hailsham in East Sussex, due to light pollution in London. The Observatory was officially known as The Royal Greenwich Observatory, Herstmonceux. Although the Astronomer Royal Harold Spencer Jones moved to the castle in 1948, the scientific staff did not move until the observatory buildings were completed, in 1957. Shortly thereafter, other previously dispersed departments were reintegrated at Herstmonceux, such as the Nautical Almanac Office, Chronometer Department, the library, and observing equipment.[43]

第二次世界大战后,1947年,由于光污染,决定将皇家天文台移至赫斯特蒙索城堡[42]和格林威治东南70公里处东萨塞克斯郡格林威治东南70公里处的赫斯特蒙索城堡[42]和320英亩(1.3公里²) 在伦敦。 该天文台被正式称为赫斯特蒙索的皇家格林威治天文台。 尽管天文学家皇家哈罗德·斯宾塞·琼斯(Royal Harold Spencer Jones)于1948年搬到了这座城堡,但直到1957年天文台大楼建成后,科研人员才搬走。此后不久,以前分散的其他部门也重新整合到了赫斯特蒙索,例如航海年历办公室,天文台。 部门,图书馆和观测设备。[43]

The largest telescope at Greenwich for a score and one, the 36-inch reflector the Yapp telescope, was moved out to Herstmonceux in 1958.[44] There it was reconstructed in Dome B of the facility.[45] There is it was used for astronomy in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. It was left behind at Herstmonceux in 1990 in its dome when the organization moved once again.[43]

格林威治望远镜中得分最高的望远镜和一架36英寸的亚普望远镜反射镜于1958年移至赫斯特蒙索。[44] 在那里,它在设施的圆顶B中重建。[45] 它曾在1960年代,1970年代和1980年代用于天文学。 1990年,当该组织再次搬迁时,它留在了赫斯特蒙克斯的圆顶。[43]

The old Isaac Newton Dome

The tricentennial of Isaac Newton had passed during the second world war, delaying festivities. One of the ground-swells was to build a ‘big better’ telescope in honour of the celebrated inventor of the newtonian reflecting telescope. Some two decades of development lead to the commissioning of the Issac Newton Telescope at Herstmonceux. It proved so successful that the weather was felt to be a bottleneck to its productivity, and plans were made to get it to a higher, sunnier spot.

艾萨克·牛顿(Esaac Newton)诞辰300周年正在第二次世界大战期间,于是推迟了庆祝活动。 其中一项艰巨的任务是建造一台“更好的”望远镜,以纪念著名的牛顿反射望远镜的发明者。 大约二十年的发展导致在Herstmonceux的Issac Newton望远镜投入使用。 事实证明如此成功,天气被认为是其生产力的瓶颈,并且已制定计划将其推广到阳光更高的地方。

On December 1, 1967, the Isaac Newton Telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Herstmonceux was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II.[46] The telescope was the biggest telescope by aperture in the British Isles.[47] The was moved to Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in Spain’s Canary Islands in 1979. In 1990 the RGO moved to Cambridge.[48] At Herstmonceux, the castle grounds became the home of the International Study Centre of Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada and The Observatory Science Centre,[49] which is operated by an educational charity Science Project.

1967年12月1日,伊丽莎白女王二世为位于赫斯特蒙索的皇家格林威治天文台的艾萨克·牛顿望远镜揭幕。[46] 望远镜是不列颠群岛最大的望远镜。[47] 该卫星于1979年被移至西班牙加那利群岛的罗克·德·洛斯·穆恰乔斯天文台。1990年,RGO移至剑桥。[48] 在Herstmonceux,城堡场地成为加拿大金斯敦女王大学国际学习中心和天文台科学中心的所在地,该中心由教育慈善科学项目运营。[49]

Observatory Science Centre opened in April 1995.[50] Some of the remaining telescopes, which were left behind in the move, have public observation events as part of operations of the centre.[50] The center has established itself as a noted tourist and education attraction in its own right, featuring many of old observatory items as exhibits.[51] It was getting 60 thousand visitors per year in the early 21st century.[50]

天文台科学中心于1995年4月开放。[50] 剩下的一些望远镜被遗弃了,作为该中心运作的一部分,进行了公众观察活动。[50] 该中心本身已将自己确立为著名的旅游和教育景点,并以许多古老的天文台物品为展览品。[51] 在21世纪初期,每年吸引6万游客。[50]

剑桥皇家天文台The Royal Observatory at Cambridge

In 1990 the Royal Observatory moved from Herstmonceux to a new site at Cambridge, adjacent to the University‘s Institute of Astronomy, where it occupied Greenwich House just to the north of the Cambridge Observatory. By now, the RGO’s focus had moved from carrying out observations from the British Isles to providing technical support, acting as a conduit between scientists in British universities and the powerful British-owned telescopes (such as the Isaac Newton Telescope) in the Canary Islands or Hawaii.[52]

1990年,皇家天文台从Herstmonceux搬到剑桥的新地点,毗邻大学的天文学院,在那里它占据了剑桥天文台北边的格林威治大厦。 到目前为止,RGO的工作重点已从不列颠群岛的观测转移到提供技术支持,成为英国大学的科学家与加纳利群岛或夏威夷岛强大的英国拥有的望远镜(例如艾萨克·牛顿望远镜)之间的纽带。[52]

After abandoning a plan to privatise the RGO and the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council as the RGO’s funding body made the decision to close the institution and the Cambridge site by 1998.[53] When the RGO was closed as an institution, HM Nautical Almanac Office transferred to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Harwell Science and Innovation CampusChiltonOxfordshire), while other work went to the UK Astronomy Technology Centre in Edinburgh. The old observatory site at Greenwich returned to its original name – Royal Observatory, Greenwich – and was made part of the National Maritime Museum.

在放弃了将RGO和爱丁堡皇家天文台私有化的计划之后,作为RGO的资助机构的粒子物理和天文学研究委员会决定在1998年之前关闭该机构和剑桥基地。[53] 当RGO作为一个机构关闭时,HM航海历书办公室移至卢瑟福·阿普尔顿实验室(牛津郡奇尔顿哈维尔科学与创新校区),而其他工作则移交给了爱丁堡的英国天文学技术中心。 格林威治的旧天文台恢复了原来的名称-皇家格林威治天文台,并成为国家海事博物馆的一部分。

格林威治地点恢复正常使用Greenwich site returns to active use

The Queen’s House at Greenwich, showing the Royal Observatory in the far distance, 2017.

格林威治的女王之家,展示了远处的皇家天文台,2017年。

In 2018 the Annie Maunder Astrographic Telescope (AMAT) was installed at the ROG in Greenwich.[54][55] AMAT is a cluster of four separate instruments, to be used for astronomical research; it had achieved first light by June 2018:[56]

[54] [55]在2018年,安妮·马德(Andrew Maunder)占星望远镜(AMAT)被安装在格林威治的ROG。 AMAT是由四个独立的仪器组成的群集,用于天文学研究。 到2018年6月,它已经取得了初步进展:[56]

  • A 14-inch reflector can take high resolution images of the sun, moon and planets.
  • An instrument dedicated to observing the sun.
  • An instrument with interchangeable filters to view distant nebulae at different optical wavelengths.
  • A general-purpose telescope.
  • 14英寸的反射器可以拍摄太阳,月亮和行星的高分辨率图像。
  • 一种专用于观测太阳的仪器。
  • 一种带有可互换滤光片的仪器,可在不同的光学波长下观察远处的星云。
  • 通用望远镜。

The telescopes and the works at the site required to operate them cost about £150,000, from grants, museum members and patrons, and public donations.

望远镜和现场操作所需的工程费用约为15万英镑,其经费来自赠款,博物馆成员和顾客以及公共捐助。

天文台博物馆Observatory museum

Shepherd Gate Clock at Royal Greenwich Observatory

皇家格林威治天文台的牧羊犬钟

The observatory buildings at Greenwich became a museum of astronomical and navigational tools, which is part of the Royal Museums Greenwich.[57] Notable exhibits include John Harrison‘s sea watchthe H4, which received a large reward from the Board of Longitude, and his three earlier marine timekeepers; all four are the property of the Ministry of Defence. Many additional horological artefacts are displayed, documenting the history of precision timekeeping for navigational and astronomical purposes, including the mid-20th-century Russian-made F.M. Fedchenko clock (the most accurate pendulum clock ever built in multiple copies). It also houses the astronomical instruments used to make meridian observations and the 28-inch equatorial Grubb refracting telescope of 1893, the largest of its kind in the UK. The Shepherd Clock outside the observatory gate is an early example of an electric slave clock.

格林威治的观测大楼变成了一个天文和导航工具博物馆,是格林威治皇家博物馆的一部分。[57] 著名的展品包括约翰·哈里森(John Harrison)的海上手表,H4,该手表获得了经度委员会的巨额奖励,以及他的三位早期海上计时员。 所有这四个都是国防部的财产。 显示了许多其他钟表文物,记录了用于导航和天文目的的精密计时的历史,包括20世纪中叶俄国制造的F.M. Fedchenko时钟(有史以来最精确的摆式钟表,有多个副本)。 它还装有用于进行子午线观测的天文仪器和1893年的28英寸赤道格鲁布折射望远镜,这是英国最大的望远镜。 天文台门外的牧羊人钟是电子从属钟的早期示例。

In February 2005 a £16 million redevelopment comprising a new planetarium and additional display galleries and educational facilities was started; the ROG reopened on 25 May 2007 with the new 120-seat Peter Harrison Planetarium.[58]

2005年2月,耗资1600万英镑的重建项目开始了,包括一个新的天象馆以及更多的展示画廊和教育设施; ROG于2007年5月25日重新开放,新增了120个座位的彼得·哈里森行星馆。[58]

For a year between 2016 and 2017 the Museum reported 2.41 million visitors.[59]

在2016年至2017年之间的一年中,博物馆报告了241万游客。[59]

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